AS Chemistry Chapter 1.5 - Organic Chemistry

edexcel as chem revision notes on hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes etc. (organic chemistry)

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Chapter 1.5 ­ Introductory Organic Chemistry
Organic molecules can be classified based on the carbon chain: -
Aliphatic molecules ­ Contain straight or branched chain carbon skeleton,
Alicyclic
Arenes
Organic molecules can also be classified on the basis on whether they are saturated fatty acids or
unsaturated fatty acids.
E.g. of unsaturated fatty acids
H H
H C C H
C C
H H Ethyne (Alkyne CnH2n-2)
Ethene (Alkene CnH2n+2)
(Learn table on page 102)
E.g. Propan-1-ol ...............................................................................................................................................
Empirical Formula (simplest ratio) - CH ...................................................................................................
Molecular Formula (how many atoms) - CH ............................................................................................
Structural Formula - CHCHCHOH ............................................................................................................
Displayed Formula ­ H H H
H C C C O H
H H H
Prefix No. of carbon Suffix Homologous series
atoms -ane Alkane
Meth- 1 -ene Alkene
Eth- 2 -ol Alcohol
Prop- 3 -oic Carboxylic Acid
But- 4 -al Aldehyde
Pent- 5 -one Ketone
H H H
E.g. But ­ 1-ene
C C C C H
4 Double Alkene
carbon bond at C
H H H H atoms

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Alkyl groups: -
Methyl CH
Ethyl CH The side
Propyl CH chain
H
E.g.
H C H 2-Methyl Propane
H H
The carbon to
H C C C H which the
methyl is
H H H attached to
If there is more than one side-chain, then you name it in alphabetical order.
E.g.…read more

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