AS Chemistry Chains, Energy and Resources (OCR F322)

A thorough set of revision notes for OCRs AS chemistry sylabus, unit 2 (F322). I've checked the AQA syllabus and it seems pretty useful for AQA as well. Contains absolutely everything needed for the OCR syllabus, as well as some extra details to help answer "suggest why" questions. Not ideal if you just want some quick revision notes, but they're more condensed than a text book. Hope they come in useful

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Chemistry F322
Contents
Organic Chemistry ............................................................................................................................. 1
Functional groups .......................................................................................................................... 1
Homologous series ........................................................................................................................ 1
Nomenclature ............................................................................................................................... 1
Formula ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Isomerism...................................................................................................................................... 3
Structural Isomerism.................................................................................................................. 3
Stereoisomerism........................................................................................................................ 4
Mechanisms .................................................................................................................................. 5
Fissions ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Electrophilic addition ................................................................................................................. 6
Nucleophilic substitution ........................................................................................................... 6
Elimination reactions ................................................................................................................. 6
Oxidation ................................................................................................................................... 6
Reduction .................................................................................................................................. 6
Neutralisation ............................................................................................................................ 6
Percentage yields .......................................................................................................................... 6
Atom economy .............................................................................................................................. 7
Hydrocarbons ................................................................................................................................ 7
Crude oil .................................................................................................................................... 7
Carbon bonding ......................................................................................................................... 8
Boiling point .............................................................................................................................. 8
Alkanes.......................................................................................................................................... 8
Combustion ............................................................................................................................... 8
Incomplete combustion ............................................................................................................. 9
Uses as a fuel ............................................................................................................................. 9
Cracking..................................................................................................................................... 9
Isomerisation ............................................................................................................................. 9
Reforming.................................................................................................................................. 9
Free radical substitution .......................................................................................................... 10

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Alkenes........................................................................................................................................ 11
Carbon-carbon double bond .................................................................................................... 11
Types of addition reaction ....................................................................................................... 11
Addition polymerisation .......................................................................................................... 13
Uses of Alkenes........................................................................................................................ 14
Alcohols....................................................................................................................................... 15
Production ............................................................................................................................... 15
Properties ................................................................................................................................ 16
Uses of Alcohols....................................................................................................................... 16
Classification............................................................................................................................ 17
Combustion ............................................................................................................................. 17
Oxidation ................................................................................................................................. 17
Esterification ........................................................................................................................... 18
Dehydration............................................................................................................................. 19
Halogenoalkanes ......................................................................................................................... 19
Hydrolysis ................................................................................................................................ 19
Rates of reaction...................................................................................................................... 20
Uses......................................................................................................................................... 21
Infrared spectroscopy .................................................................................................................. 21
Uses......................................................................................................................................... 22
Mass spectrometry ...................................................................................................................... 22
Uses......................................................................................................................................... 22
Process .................................................................................................................................... 22
Determining structures ............................................................................................................ 22
Energy .............................................................................................................................................…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Standard enthalpy change of formation ................................................................................... 27
Experimental determination of H .............................................................................................. 27
Experiments............................................................................................................................. 27
Calculations ............................................................................................................................. 28
Bond enthalpies........................................................................................................................... 28
Bond enthalpies to determine H ............................................................................................ 29
Hess' law ..................................................................................................................................... 29
Using enthalpy changes of combustion .................................................................................... 30
Using enthalpy of formation .................................................................................................... 31
Collision theory............................................................................................................................ 32
Effect of concentration ............................................................................................................ 32
Effect of pressure on gases ...................................................................................................... 32
Catalysts ...................................................................................................................................... 32
Economic importance of catalysts ............................................................................................ 33
Enzymes .................................................................................................................................. 33
Boltzmann Distribution ................................................................................................................ 34
Effect of temperature .............................................................................................................…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Depletion of ozone .................................................................................................................. 41
CFCs......................................................................................................................................... 42
Controlling air pollution ............................................................................................................... 42
Carbon monoxide .................................................................................................................... 42
Nitrogen oxides ....................................................................................................................... 43
Unburnt hydrocarbons............................................................................................................. 43
Monitoring air pollution........................................................................................................... 43
Catalytic convertor .................................................................................................................. 43
Polymers ..................................................................................................................................... 43
Recycling ................................................................................................................................. 44
Combustion ............................................................................................................................. 44
Feedstock ................................................................................................................................ 44
Biodegradable polymers .......................................................................................................... 44
Sustainability ............................................................................................................................... 45
Don't use hazardous chemicals ................................................................................................ 45
Use fewer chemicals ................................................................................................................ 45
Use reactions with a high atom economy ................................................................................. 45
Use renewable resources ......................................................................................................... 45
Seek alternative energy sources ...............................................................................................…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Organic Chemistry
Chemistry of the molecules based on carbon
The simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only
There are many organic molecules because:
o Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms, forming
chains or rings
o They can bond with many other different types of atom
A carbon atom has 4 outer electrons, so must obey the law of having a total of 4 bonds
A saturated hydrocarbon is…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
9 Non- Nonyl-
10 Dec- Decyl-
The smallest possible numbers are used when deciding which end of the carbon chain to number
1
The process of naming is:
1. Identify the parent chain (the longest chain) and assign the appropriate stem
2. Add a suffix or prefix to the stem to indicate the functional group
3.…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Carboxylic acid -C=O -oic acid No number ever
required as the
OH functional groups
is always on
carbon 1
Formula
An empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a
compound
A molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
A general formula is the simplest algebraic formula for a member of a homologous series, e.g.…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Hexan-2-ol
Hexan-3-ol
Chain isomers
Compounds can be branched or unbranched
When this changes, or branches occur in different places, a chain isomer is formed
E.g.
Butane 2-methyl-propane
Hexan-2-ol
Functional group isomers
The functional group can be different
These isomers are the most chemically different
E.g.…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
E is where the longest carbon chain continues on the same side of the C=C bond
E.g. Z-4-methyl-hept-3-ene
Cis-trans isomerism is a special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are
the same. In this case, cis isomerism is when the same substituent groups are on the same side
of the C=C bond. Trans isomerism is when the same substituent groups are on different sides of
the C=C bond
The same substituent groups are the propanyl
chains.…read more

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Chemistry F322 13/05/2012 12:10
Electrophilic addition
An electrophile is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or
atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
Normally anything positively charged, or with a net dipole, or the ability to have a temporary
induced dipole
E.…read more

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