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Alcohols

1. General

Functional group is OH
General formula is CnH2n+1OH


2. Industrial Production of Ethanol

Feedstock = starting material in an industrial process i.e. glucose or ethene here

a) Fermentation of Glucose

Slow reaction, batch process, uses renewable resources.
Requires enzyme from yeast (zymase), temperature 3540 C, no air…

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a) Combustion

Example C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O
Balance C's then H's then O's
Don't forget the O in the OH when balancing


b) Elimination of water to form an alkene

Example C2H5OH CH2=CH2 + H2O
Done either with hot, concentrated sulphuric acid or hot pumice (Al2O3)
This method…

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5. Distinguishing between aldehydes and ketones

Aldehydes react with mild oxidising agents such as Tollens' reagent and Fehling's solution
Ketones do not react with Tollens' and Fehling's because they are not easily oxidised
Tollen's reagent is ammoniacal silver nitrate. The compound to be tested is warmed with Tollen's reagent
With…

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