AS Case studies.

Case studies for flooding, coastal managment and health. Amost all the case studies you will need.

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Case studies
Carlisle Floods Jan 05
Intense rainfall and runoff 73% at river Eden
Mixed arable and grassland in valleys
Impermeable slates and volcanic rocks increase runoff
Thin soils in upland areas so easily saturated, leads to runoff
Urbanisation spread in valley areas increased impermeable services.
River Eden confluences with three other rivers just outside Carlisle.
Significant flooding in the last 100 years.
Short term impacts
3 people dead and 120 injured.
Communications affected and roads impassable.
1865 properties flooded
schools hospitals and police station cut off and closed in some cases
Long term impacts
Houses inundated with filthy floodwaters so had to be substantially rebuilt on
the ground floors.
Some families not insured.
Some homes now effectively uninsurable and worth considerably less.
In 2007 11 families were still waiting to move back into their houses. (30
months after the flood)
300 businesses flooded and of them half had to close down or relocate.
Firms lost business during the time that they were closed.
Changed public perception and affected the likelihood of people visiting
Intangible impacts
Psychological effects such as bereavement.
Carlisle's flood defence changes after flood
Raise existing flood defences and effecting the local realignment, this meant
setting back existing flood defences to increase the storage area of the
This was estimated to provide protection to a 1 in 200 year flood risk.
Flooding in Bangladesh
See `rivers, floods and management' booklet
Holderness coast
The Holderness coast is one of the fastesteroding areas in Britain, the average
annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year. This is around 2 million
tonnes of material every year. Under lying the Holderness Coast is bedrock
made up of Cretaceous Chalk. However, in most places this is covered by

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It is this soft boulder clay is prone to
saturation and failure, typically rotational slumping.
Coastal Management at mappelton
In 1991 almost £2 million was spent on two granite groynes imported from
Norway and a rock revetment to protect Mappleton and the B1242 coastal road.
The purpose of the two rock groynes was to trap beach material. As the result of
the coastal management a substantial beach accumulated between the groynes
halting erosion.
However, further south the rate of erosion has increased significantly.…read more

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Cliffs are capped with porous and permeable gravel meaning water can
infiltrate into the cliffs easily, making the land vulnerable to landslides.
Physical consequences
February 1974 ­ 200 metres of cliff foot defences damaged after bad
storm occurred.
By December 1993 ­ cliff toe displaced by 8 metres.
September 2001 ­ sea defences collapsed close to Cliff House.
Rotational slip resulted in drainage system collapsing.
November 2003 ­ Small signs of movement noticed after heavy rain
occurred.…read more

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A deep depression moved from the Shetlands down to the Netherlands.
Low pressure air aloud the sea to rise by 0.5m, as there were also strong
winds waves over 6m high were generated.
This was all happening during the spring high tides when all of the rivers were
already discharging into the North Sea at flood levels.…read more

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Coastal defences
A combined sewerage pumping station and storm water storage tank inside
the new sea wall.
Stabilisation works to cliffs and the land behind the harbour.
Recurved top of the sea wall to reflect the energy of the waves,
Rock amour apron in front of the wall in some places to prevent scouring.
Sand and shingle imported to protect the sea wall, make the beach more
attractive to tourists and soften the visual impact of the hard engineering
solutions.…read more

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Morbidity: The state of being ill or diseased, or the occurrence of a disease or
condition that damages health and quality of life. It can also be used to
mean the relative incidence of a particular disease in society.
Mortality: Death. The term is used accompanied by the cause of death (a
specific disease, condition or injury.
Health: The overall condition of an individual at a given time in regard to
soundness of body or mind and freedom for disease or abnormality.…read more

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Diabetes can be controlled with lifestyle changes such as a balanced diet and
regular exercise, if necessary insulin can be subscribed.
Diseases of poverty: disease that result form impoverishment.
Famine is not necessarily caused by lack of food, but by the lack of recourses or
entitlement needed to obtain food.
Central, local and community governments play key rolls in causing famine as
well as preventing it.
Famine in Africa
They occur where and when poverty interacts with economic, agricultural
social and demographic policies.…read more

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Cuban Healthcare professionals now work in 68 different countries
Spend £300,000 an hour on finding new medicines.
The only pharmaceutical company to tackle the three `priority' diseases
HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and malaria
Shipped 206 million preferential priced tablets for HIV treatment to
developing countries.
TNC British American Tobacco
80% of the tobacco leaf they buy is from farmers and suppliers in emerging
economies.…read more


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