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Case studies

Carlisle Floods Jan 05
Intense rainfall and runoff 73% at river Eden
Mixed arable and grassland in valleys
Impermeable slates and volcanic rocks increase runoff
Thin soils in upland areas so easily saturated, leads to runoff
Urbanisation spread in valley areas increased impermeable services.
River Eden…

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glacial till deposited over 18,000 years ago. It is this soft boulder clay is prone to
saturation and failure, typically rotational slumping.

Coastal Management at mappelton
In 1991 almost £2 million was spent on two granite groynes imported from
Norway and a rock revetment to protect Mappleton and the B1242…

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Cliffs are capped with porous and permeable gravel meaning water can
infiltrate into the cliffs easily, making the land vulnerable to landslides.

Physical consequences
February 1974 ­ 200 metres of cliff foot defences damaged after bad
storm occurred.
By December 1993 ­ cliff toe displaced by 8 metres.
September 2001…

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A deep depression moved from the Shetlands down to the Netherlands.
Low pressure air aloud the sea to rise by 0.5m, as there were also strong
winds waves over 6m high were generated.
This was all happening during the spring high tides when all of the rivers were
already discharging…

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Coastal defences
A combined sewerage pumping station and storm water storage tank inside
the new sea wall.
Stabilisation works to cliffs and the land behind the harbour.
Recurved top of the sea wall to reflect the energy of the waves,
Rock amour apron in front of the wall in some…

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Morbidity: The state of being ill or diseased, or the occurrence of a disease or
condition that damages health and quality of life. It can also be used to
mean the relative incidence of a particular disease in society.

Mortality: Death. The term is used accompanied by the cause of…

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Diabetes can be controlled with lifestyle changes such as a balanced diet and
regular exercise, if necessary insulin can be subscribed.

Diseases of poverty: disease that result form impoverishment.
Famine is not necessarily caused by lack of food, but by the lack of recourses or
entitlement needed to…

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Cuban Healthcare professionals now work in 68 different countries
Spend £300,000 an hour on finding new medicines.
The only pharmaceutical company to tackle the three `priority' diseases
HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and malaria
Shipped 206 million preferential priced tablets for HIV treatment to
developing countries.

TNC British American Tobacco
80% of…


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