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1. An antibody is an example of a protein molecule, which has a specific 3-dimensional
shape.

The diagram below shows the structure of an antibody molecule.

constant region variable region




heavy polypeptide
chains
light polypeptide
chain



(i) Outline how the structure of an antibody molecule is related to its function.…

Page 2

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(ii) Suggest why the base sequence in the genes for human antibodies is more
similar to that found in a chimp than to that found in a mouse.

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[2]
[Total 5 marks]




2. (i) any three from the following:
award mark only if structure related to suitable…

Page 3

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3. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is spread by exchange of body fluids
between an infected person and an uninfected person. This often occurs as a result of
unprotected sexual intercourse.

The diagram below shows the percentage of people infected with HIV in different parts
of the world at the…

Page 4

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(ii) Explain why it is useful to collect information, such as that shown in the figure
above.

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[4]
[Total 7 marks]




4. (i) any three from following:
education on HIV / AIDS less effective;
sexual attitudes / number of partners ;
availability…

Page 5

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(ii) any three from the following:
to find out where rates, are highest / people are most at risk ;
to keep track of infection rates over time/ AW ;
to see where disease is likely to spread / where epidemic most likely ;
to help research (into how it…

Page 6

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7. Read the following passage and complete each sentence by writing the most
appropriate word in the spaces provided.

Health can be defined as a state of complete ....................................., mental and social

well-being. It is not merely the absence of infirmity or ..................................... . Many people

may consider themselves healthy,…

Page 7

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9. The diagram below shows the incidence of coronary events and mortality from
coronary heart disease (CHD) in some countries around the world. The incidence of
coronary events refers to the number of reported cases of any form of coronary illness
per 100 000 of the population.

The diagram also…

Page 8

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(b) Using the information in the diagram, describe the evidence to suggest that
smoking is not the only factor involved in causing heart disease.

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[2]




(c) Describe three steps a government might take to try to reduce the mortality from
CHD.

1 ......................................................................................................................

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Page 9

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(b) no relationship between prevalence of smoking and incidence of
coronary events; A statement that country X (Russia) has high
prevalence smoking and high incidence of coronary events while
country Y (Scotland or Finland) has low prevalence and high incidence
use of figures to compare;
e.g.: compare China and Russia…

Page 10

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11. Below is a diagram showing the structure of a typical antibody.

hinge
region

binding
site



light
polypeptide
chain


constant
region disulphide
bridge


heavy
polypeptide
chain




(a) Name the type of cell that produces antibodies.

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[1]




(b) (i) State one function for each of the component parts listed below.…

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