AS Biology unit 2 Health and disease questions and answers

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1. An antibody is an example of a protein molecule, which has a specific 3-dimensional
shape.
The diagram below shows the structure of an antibody molecule.
constant region variable region
heavy polypeptide
chains
light polypeptide
chain
(i) Outline how the structure of an antibody molecule is related to its function.
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SWAKELEYS SCHOOL 1

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Page 2

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Suggest why the base sequence in the genes for human antibodies is more
similar to that found in a chimp than to that found in a mouse.
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[Total 5 marks]
2.…read more

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The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is spread by exchange of body fluids
between an infected person and an uninfected person. This often occurs as a result of
unprotected sexual intercourse.
The diagram below shows the percentage of people infected with HIV in different parts
of the world at the end of 2002.
Eastern Europe
Western Europe & Central Asia
0 .5 ­ 1 % 1 ­ 5%
North America East Asia & Pacific
0. 5 ­ 1% 0 .…read more

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Explain why it is useful to collect information, such as that shown in the figure
above.
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[Total 7 marks]
4. (i) any three from following:
education on HIV / AIDS less effective;
sexual attitudes / number of partners ;
availability of condoms ;
poverty / poorer / less money ;
sex industry ;
less primary health care / less likely to be diagnosed ;
AVP; e.g.…read more

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AW ;
to see where disease is likely to spread / where epidemic most likely ;
to help research (into how it is spread / into effectiveness of drugs) ;
to allow organisations to provide, aid / health care, where it is needed most ;
to allow organisations to provide education (about disease) where it is
needed most;
AVP ; e.g. tourist industry 4
[7]
5. At present there is no cure for HIV / AIDS.…read more

Page 6

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Read the following passage and complete each sentence by writing the most
appropriate word in the spaces provided.
Health can be defined as a state of complete ....................................., mental and social
well-being. It is not merely the absence of infirmity or ..................................... . Many people
may consider themselves healthy, even though they do not fully match the above criteria. A
young woman can improve her health in a number of ways.…read more

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The diagram below shows the incidence of coronary events and mortality from
coronary heart disease (CHD) in some countries around the world. The incidence of
coronary events refers to the number of reported cases of any form of coronary illness
per 100 000 of the population.
The diagram also shows the prevalence of smoking in the same countries. The
prevalence of smoking is the percentage who smoke cigarettes every day.…read more

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Using the information in the diagram, describe the evidence to suggest that
smoking is not the only factor involved in causing heart disease.
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(c) Describe three steps a government might take to try to reduce the mortality from
CHD.
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[Total 8 marks]
10.…read more

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A statement that country X (Russia) has high
prevalence smoking and high incidence of coronary events while
country Y (Scotland or Finland) has low prevalence and high incidence
use of figures to compare;
e.g.…read more

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Below is a diagram showing the structure of a typical antibody.
hinge
region
binding
site
light
polypeptide
chain
constant
region disulphide
bridge
heavy
polypeptide
chain
(a) Name the type of cell that produces antibodies.
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(b) (i) State one function for each of the component parts listed below.
binding site .............................................................................................
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disulphide bridge ....................................................................................
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constant region ......................................................................................
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hinge region ...........................................................................................
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