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Cell Ultrastructure
Magnification increases the size of an object
Resolution/resolving power ability to distinguish between adjacent points

Table 1-10-2: Microscopes (1)

Feature Optical microscope Electron microscope

Radiation Light Electrons

Magnification 400x (max1500) 500 000x

Resolution 2µm 1nm / 0,001µm
Electrons have a small
\ Higher resolution

Vacuum in microscope…

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Found in cells that are making proteins for export (enzymes, hormones, structural proteins,
Thus, involved in protein synthesis
Modifies proteins by the addition of carbohydrates, removal of signal sequences
Phospholipid synthesis and assembly of polypeptides

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth ER)
Have no ribosomes attached and often appear more tubular…

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o Nutrients diffuse through lysosomal membrane into the cytosol

Mitochondria (1µm in diameter and 7µm in length)
Mostly protein, but also contains some lipid, DNA and RNA
Power house of the cell
o Energy is stored in high energy phosphate bonds of ATP
o Mitochondria convert energy from the breakdown…

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- Nucleoli \ Absent \ Present
- Chromosomes (DNA) Single and circular Many and linear

Centriole (for mitosis) Absent Only in animal cells


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