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Chapter 1.3 ­ Food and Health

We need macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats/lipids) and micronutrients (mineral salts
and vitamins) and fibre and water.

Macronutrients form the majority of the diet

Carbohydrates ­ Provide energy. They are broken down in digestion into glucose, which is
used in cellular respiration to release…

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Pentose (n=5) sugars have the formula CHO. These include ribose and deoxyribose which
are important in nucleic acids DNA and RNA, which make up genetic material.
Hexose (n=6) sugars have the formula CHo. They are the best known monosaccharides.
This includes glucose, galactose and fructose.

Disaccharides ­ Double sugars. Made…

Page 3

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In an unsaturated fatty acid, the carbon chains have one or more double bonds in them.

A fat or oil results when A bond is formed in a A molecule of water is
glycerol combines with condensation reaction removed and the
one, two or three fatty between the carboxyl resulting…

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Iconic bonds ­ Formed between some strongly positive and negative amino acid side chains found
deep in the protein molecules. They are strong but not as common as the other structural bonds.

Proteins can be described by their primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.

Primary Structure ­ Linear sequence of…

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Paper chromatography and electrophoresis are used to discover the details of the molecular
structure of proteins.

The amount of energy contained in a food can be measured using a process known as calorimetry.

Calorimetry measures the amount of energy released when a known quantity of food is completely
oxidised by…


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