AS AQA UNIT 2 SOCIOLOGY - differences in Educational Achievement

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Differences in Educational Achievement
Internal External Class Gender Ethnic
Cultural Deprivation Intellectual Development Intellectual and Linguistic skills =
Development of thinking and reasoning Shann Report ­ When English isn't
skills. spoken at home, it does not hold
J.W.B Douglas found that working class students back in educational
children scored lower than middle class achievement
children because of a lack of intellectual
Language Attitudes and Values
Bereiter and Engelmen argue lower C.D theorists argue that many Black
class language as inferior and causes children are socialised into a
underachievement subculture that instils a fatalistic
Bernstein identifies two speech codes attitude that does not value
Restricted code (W.C) LTD vocab education and leaves them
and short unfinished sentenced unequipped for success.
Elaborated Code (M.C) better
vocab and more complex,
grammatically correct sentences.
Schools code.
Attitudes and Values Family structure
Leon Feinstein argues W.C parents lack Moynihas argues that absent
of interest was the main reason for fatherhood is a reason why black
educational under-achievement. boys fail.
Barry Sugarman argues that W.C SC Roger scruton argues it is down to
differs from Mainstream Culture, four the failure to embrace mainstream
K.F act as a barrier to EA; fatalism, British culture.
collectivism, immediate gratification,
present time orientation.

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Differences in Educational Achievement
Material Deprivation Diet and Health Flaherty = Ethnic minorities are more
A poorer unbalanced diet can cause likely to be materially deprived.
ill-health resulting in absence from Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are
school.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
Health ­ Cold or damp can cause
ill-health and frequent absence from
Costs of free education ­ Many
working class children lack the
resources that would enhance their
educational experience.
Many W.C children have to have
hand-me-downs and are stigmatised by
their peers
Fear of stigmatisation explains why
20% W.C.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
emerge as a failure pushed them to seek alternative
response to status through their peers in the same
being labelled subculture
Peter wood (F.Response to Labels) =
Ingratiation = Teachers Pet
Ritualism = Staying out of trouble
Retreatism = Daydreaming, mucking
Rebellion = Rejection of schools values
Marketization Cream Skimming = Selecting higher Girls are more attractive to
and Selection ability pupils (M.C), who get better schools than boys as they do
Policies results and cost less to teach better.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
Asian Pupils were labelled as having
poorer English as well as being easily
marginalised and ignored.
Mirza Identified 3 types of teacher
The colour blind = Teachers who
believe all pupils are equal but let
racism go unchallenged
Liberal Chauvernists = Teachers who
believe black pupils are deprived
and have low expectations of them
Overt Racists = teachers who believe
blacks are inferior and actively
discriminate.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
subcultures and school, they keep a
low profile
Innovators = Pro Education, Anti
School. Distance themselves from
the conformists enough to gain
credibility from the rebels whilst
valuing success
Ethnocentric Sociologists are critical of the
Curriculum = curriculum for giving priority to the
Describes an host community, whilst largely
attitude that ignoring non-European languages,
gives priority to literature and music.
the culture and Stephen Ball criticises the N.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
Impacts of Feminism 1) Raised woman's
2) Achieved legal rights
in many areas
3) Raised self-esteem
4) Increased the choices
available to woman
Sue Sharpe compared girls
aspirations between 1976 and
McRobbie content analysis of
girls magazines
1970s "keeping husband
1990s "careers"
Changes in the family Changed girls attitudes to bring
independent especially
1) Increased divorce rate
2) Decline in marriage
3) Decline in Birth rate
4) Increase in lone
parent families
5) Decreasing family size
6)…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
from 47% 1959 to 85%
The gender pay gap has
decreased from 30% to
17% since 1975
More woman breaking
through the glass ceiling
Girls changing Previous three arguments
ambitions show those women are being
perceived differently in
contemporary society. And
there ambitions are growing.
Sue Sharpe woman's
ambitions have changed since
the 70s and have increased.
Equal Change in societies values
Opportunities have has an impact on
education and its policies.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
show woman can reach
positions of authority
GCSEs and 1988 = GCSEs and Coursework
Coursework introduced
Mitsos & Browne support the
view arguing girls are more
organised and conscientious
Girls mature earlier, giving
them an advantage as they
can concentrate longer
Oral exams at GCSE benefits
girls as they have better
language skills
Jannette Elwood criticises this
as a factor because the
majority of marks come from
exams.…read more

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Differences in Educational Achievement
Reading schemes
portrayed women as
Physics books showed
women to be amazed by
Maths books depicted
boys as more inventive
Gaby Weiner raised girl's
achievements by presenting
women of a more positive
image of what they can do.
Literacy Reading has been feminised
Boys are socialised to be
"Active", reading not a factor
Decline in Masculine Jobs
Manufacturing (Manufacturing) have moved
abroad and thus employment
opportunities have been
hampered.…read more


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