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Ice Revision
The Global Distribution of Cold Environments
1) Glacial envs found high altitude + high latitude
2) Land permanently covered by ice, either by glacier or ice sheets
3) Glaciers masses of ice flow downhill. 2 types- valley + corrie
4) Only form where very cold so found…

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Polar/ Cold Glaciers
1) Ice remains frozen at base so little water or movement so little erosion.
2) Little snowfall due to high pressure and limited melting therefore low ice budget

Glacial Movement
1) Rate of movement depends on temperature of ice. Some ice warmer than others
and depends on…

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Influences of Rate of Movement
1. Snow + ice don't move downslope until thickness exceeds 60m
2. Steep gradients flow faster
3. Faster over impermeable surfaces due to water available for slippage
4. Precipitation and ablation play role in amount of meltwater available
5. Greatest velocity at firm line as…

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Depositional Landforms
1. Lateral moraine- sides of the glacier
2. Medial moraine- in the centre of the valley where two glaciers converged
3. Terminal moraine- builds up at the end of the glacier and is deposited as till
4. Recessional moraine- marks the end of a glacier and different…

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3. Meltwater streams are often braided- they split into lots of mini streams that cross
over each other. This is as the meltwater is flowing more slowly so it can't carry its
load so it's deposited and the stream has to flow around it
4. Fluvioglacial deposits are sorted and…

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finer clay furthest away. Outwash material may be deposited on top of the till
following retreat of ice.
5. Ice Marginal Lake- Flow of stream from tributary valley blocked by glacier which is
present in main valley
6. Proglacial Lake- Lies in front of a glacier and filled with meltwater,…

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cracks- these ice-filled cracks called ice wedges. Frost contraction in following
years can re-open cracks in same place, splitting ice wedge. More water seeps in
and freezes, widening the wedge.
3. Patterned ground- in areas where temp varies between 0 & -40C, frost heaving
and thawing that follows sorts material.…

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2. Larger material travels quickly downslope due to frost heaving
bringing the stones upto the surface and rolling them down until
hit something which stops them e.g. vegetation or shallow slope.
Creates stone wall, acts as a dam to soil
3. Fnier material accumulate behind stone wall to create terrace…

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9. VG rely on caribou for food + hides for clothes and tents. Bones + antlers: soup /
tools. Evidence of traditional hunting e.g. caribou fences (wood) trap herd after
pass through gap in forest or ford across stream), as funneled into U-shape, easy
10. Now, still hunt during…


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