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Electron arrangement
ALL HAVE 2 ELECTRONS IN OUTER S-ORBITAL
SHEILDING INCREASES DOWN GROUP…read more

Slide 3

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Ionisation energies
ALWAYS LOSE 2 OUTER ELECTRONS TO FORM 2+ IONS
1ST AND 2ND IONISATION ENERGY
DECREASES DOWN GROUP
THIS IS BECAUSE OUTER ELECTRONS ARE FURTHER FROM
NUCLEUS AND THERE IS MORE SHEILDING BETWEEN OUTER
ELECTRONS AND NUCLEUS.
DISTANCE AND SHEILDING ARE IMPORTANT FACTORS IN
IONISATION ENERGY. THE FURTHER THE DISTANCE AND
THE MORE SHEILDING, THE EASIER IT IS FOR AN OUTER
ELECTRON TO BE REMOVED AS THERE IS LESS
ATTRACTION BETWEEN THE ELECTRON AND THE NUCLEUS,
SO THE IONISATION ENERGY REQUIRED IS LOWER.…read more

Slide 4

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Size of atoms
SIZE OF ATOMS INCREASES DOWN
GROUP
SMALLEST
THIS IS DUE
TO MORE
ELECTRONS
AND
THEREFORE
MORE
SHIELDING.
BIGGEST…read more

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Melting points
MELTING POINTS DECREASE
SLIGHTLY DOWN GROUP
THIS IS BECAUSE:
· AS WE GO DOWN GROUP, THE `SEA' OF DELOCALISED
ELECTRONS ARE FURTHER AWAY FROM THE POSITIVE
NUCLEI.
· AS A RESULT, THE STRENGTH OF THE METALLIC BONDS
DECREASE DOWN THE GROUP
· AS BOND STRENGTH DECREASES, MELTING POINTS
DECREASE AS LESS HEAT ENERGY IS NEEDED TO BREAK
BONDS.…read more

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Solubility
HYDROXIDES
BECOME MORE SOLUBLE DOWN GROUP
Mg(OH)2 ­ Almost insoluble
Ca(OH)2 ­ Sparingly soluble
Sr(OH)2 ­ More soluble
ba(OH)2 ­ Dissolves to produce strongly alkaline solution
SULFATES
BECOME LESS SOLUBLE DOWN GROUP
BaSO4 ­ Highly insoluble, used as a barium meal for X-rays
REMEMBER:
HYDROXIDES ARE MORE SOLUBLE DOWN GROUP
SULFATES ARE LESS SOLUBLE DOWN GROUP…read more

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