AS studies

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Unit Study Evaluations
Psychopathology Beck's Cognitive theory of depression Some Evidence Grazioli and
individuals are more vulnerable to depression Terry tested women's
generated through thoughts. Three parts to this cognitive vulnerability
cognitive vulnerability: faulty information before and after
processing, negative self-schema and the negative pregnancy and found
triad. Faulty information processing refers to the that women who had
focus on negative thoughts a person has and high cognitive
exaggerated responses. Negative self schemas refers vulnerability were
to the negative connotations surrounding a person's more likely to suffer
belief about themselves and the world. The negative post-natal depression.
triad refers to three types of negative thinking that Practical application
constantly occurs about: the world, future and self. used in CBT and as
These thought processes occur no matter the reality components of
and often lead to dysfunctional views on their self. negative triad are
easily identified
Ellis' ABC model on cognitive approach to therapists can easily
depression Proposed that good mental health is the challenge them.
result of rational thinking, anxiety and depression Simplistic only explains
come from irrational thoughts. ABC model is used to the basic principles of
explain how irrational thoughts affect our emotions depression. Doesn't
and behaviour. A- refers to activating irrational explain extreme
thoughts from external events. B- refers to the belief behaviours such as
that we must always succeed. C- refers to the rage and hallucination.
consequences from activating an event that causes
irrational beliefs. Consequences are emotional and
behavioural.
Psychopathology Two Process model theory that classical conditioning Phobias don't always
is used to acquire a phobia whilst operant follow trauma
conditioning is used to maintain the phobia. Ignores cognitive
aspects

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Systematic desensitivisation Patient is taught to Research McGrath et
relax their muscles. Therapists construct a al found SD
desensitization hierarchy ranging from low to high appropriate in 75 of
anxiety. The patient gradually works through the patients with phobias
hierarchy by visualising the event whilst engaging in Quicker than CBT
the relaxation techniques taught in stage 1. Patient Not as fast as drug
remains relaxed during the imagination of the fear treatments
stimuli.…read more

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Approaches Bandura Bobo doll 72 children aged 37-69 months No standardised
were tested in a laboratory using independent procedure
measures to demonstrate social learning theory. Low ecological validity
Children individually shown to a room for 10 minutes Unethical
with toys with a role model. In the non aggressive
group the role model gently played with the doll
whilst in the aggressive group the role model
physically attacked the doll and verbalised both
aggressive and non aggressive statements.…read more

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Approaches Outline fight or flight response The sympathetic Taylor et al found
nervous system associates sensory signals with women act in a social
emotions such as fear and sends a distress signal to manner due to
the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus responds by evolutionary role to
releasing CRH into the bloodstream. The pituitary protect offsping
gland releases ACTH into the bloodstream and to it's Modern life does not
target sites.…read more

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Asch was interested to see if the real
pp would conform to the majority view even though
it was obviously wrong. On average 32% of the time,
pps conformed with the majority. 74% conformed at
least once. This shows normative influence because
pps knew the answer to the simple questions so they
were worried they wouldn't fit in with the majority.…read more

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So prisons need to have strong pro-
social element to change the roles of prisoners. he
teacher is told to administer an electric shock every
time the learner makes a mistake, increasing the
level of shock each time. There were 30 switches on
the shock generator marked from 15 volts (slight
shock) to 450 (danger ­ severe shock).The learner
gave mainly wrong answers (on purpose) and for
each of these the teacher gave him an electric shock.…read more

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Social influences Jenness 1932 Participants were asked to make an Covert observation
initial estimate on the amount of beans a bottle High internal validity
contained. They then had to provide an agreed
group estimate on this amount. Jenness then placed
the participants in seperate rooms again and asked if
they would like to change their estimate.…read more

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Attachments Lorenz Investigated the formation of attachment Comparative
using geese. Divided fertile geese into two groups- psychology
randomly. Half were placed under their mother and Unethical
allowed to naturally hatch whilst the others were Supports critical
placed in an incubator. Lorenz ensured he was the period
first mobile object seen by the incubator group and
found that the geese formed a rapid attachment to
him. Once they'd hatched he put all the goslings
together and released them. They separated into
two groups seeking their 'mother'.…read more

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Attachments Bowlby monotropic theory Bowlby believed that Schaffer and Emerson
infants developed innate species-specific attachment 1964 found that in
behaviours by natural selection to ensure survival. 39% of cases the
These social releasers include crying, vocalising and mother was not the
following. These behaviours are initially triggered by infants main
many people however in the first year these attachment. -feeding
behaviours narrow and focus on selected individuals.…read more

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Takahashi strange situation Looked into how Unethical children
appropriate the strange situation was in other were under more
cultures -Japan- and whether it was valid outside of stress as they were
America. 60 middle class infants who were all raised not used to being
at home were observed under the strange situation. separated. Study was
Found that 68% infants were securely attached and not stopped even
32% were insecure resistant.…read more

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