AS Cell Organelle Notes

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  • Created on: 16-09-16 13:08
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Nucleus
The 'control centre' of the cell through protein synthesis. Controls the functions of the other organelles.
Contains the genetic material (DNA) in the form of chromosomes
Mitochondria
Convert glucose into ATP. Respires aerobically for the cell. Ribosomes are 70s.
Ribosomes
Smallest of the cell organelles. 80s found in eukaryotic, 70s found in prokaryotic, chloroplasts &
mitochondria. Consist of 2 subunits: 1 large, 1 small. Made from RNA & protein. Loose in cytoplasm or
bound to RER. Site of protein synthesis.
Golgi Apparatus
Many functions of Golgi, linked to modification and packaging of products of SER & RER: Adding
carbohydrate to proteins to form glycoproteins, producing secretion enzymes, secrete carbs, transport
modify & store lipids, form lysosomes.
Lysosomes
Formed from Golgi vesicles. Hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytes, exocytosis to release enzymes
outside of the cell, digest wornout organelles to recycle their contents, break down cells which have died.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesises, stores and transports lipids and carbohydrates.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Flattened sacks with ribosomes, may link with the Golgi body. Provides a large surface area for protein
synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins. Transport system for the products of protein synthesis.
Large Central Vacuole

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Surrounded by a single membrane called the tonoplast. Used for storage & supports plants by making the
cells turgid. May contain pigment with colour (beetroot) to attract pollinators.
Chloroplasts
Carry out photosynthesis and are selfreplicating. Fluid filled centre called stroma. Stacked flattened sacks
called grana
Cell Wall
ONLY in plant cells. Found on the outside of the cell membrane. Made mainly from cellulose. Supports the
structure of the cell, withstanding osmotic pressure from within cell, enabling cell to remain turgid.…read more

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