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Benzene
· Carbon atoms are joined by single bonds with
delocalised electrons
· All bonds are same length ­ all equal
· More stable than the Kekule model
· When hydrogenated reaction is less exothermic than
expected ­ so more energy must have been put in to
break the bonds
Kekule Structure: Benzene(Delocalised Model):…read more

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Electrophilic Substitution
General Mechanism:…read more

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Nitration of Benzene
· Electrophile is made by mixing conc nitric acid and conc
sulphuric acid. Nitrobenzene is made by gentle reflux at
500C to prevent further substitution and with conc
sulphuric acid as a catalyst.
· HNO3 + 2H2SO4 NO2+ + H3O+ + 2HSO4-
Mechanism:
· C6H6 + NO2+ C6H5NO2 + H+…read more

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Acylation of Benzene
· Electrophile is made by:
· [AlCl4]+ + H+ AlCl3 + HCl
Mechanism:
· PhenylRanone is made by reacting benzene and an acyl chloride with an
aluminium catalyst, heated and refluxed.
· C6H6 + CH3COCl C6H5 COCH3 + HCl
Mechanism:…read more

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