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The Turning Effect of Forces

Forces have a turning effect. They tend to make objects turn around a fixed point called a pivot or a fulcrum. The
turning effect of a force about a pivot is called its moment.

Moment (Nm) = force (N) x perpendicular distance from pivot (m)…

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Waves

Reflection

When waves strike a straight or flat barrier:

Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection

Note that the red line is called the normal line.



When waves strike a concave
barrier, they converge.





When waves strike a convex
barrier, they diverge.






Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction…

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misinterpretation of the brain. The opposite of this is a real image. The image produced in a mirror is the same
distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of it. It is also laterally inverted. This means when you raise your
left hand, your mirror image raises…

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n = 1/ sin c

Sound Waves

Sound waves are longitudinal waves that travel through gases,
liquids and solids. They travel slower in air, at around 340m/s and
faster in solids. Sound waves cannot travel in vacuum. Sound
waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted.

Frequency Range for Humans: 20Hz…

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Magnets and Electromagnetism

Magnets repel and attract other magnets, as well as magnetic substances. Like poles repel and unlike poles
attract.

Hard magnetic materials are `hard' to demagnetise ­ and are used for making magnets and other things that we
want to stay magnetised. Such materials include steel.

Soft magnetic…

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Note: In magnetism, when pointing towards the direction of the current, you do it, the `convectional current' way ­
as in current flows from positive to negative (I don't know why but yeah).

The Motor Effect

There is a force on a charged particle when it moves in a magnetic…

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Electromagnetic Induction

Motors use electricity to produce movement. Generators do the opposite. When we move a wire across a magnetic
field at right angles, a voltage is induced. If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current flows. This is called
electromagnetic induction.

It can be increased by:…

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changing or fluctuating magnetic field will pass through it and cut through the wires of the second coil, inducing
voltage across it. It's abit like moving a magnet in and out of a solenoid. The first coil is called the primary coil and
the second coil is called the secondary…

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