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Foundation Chemistry

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Foundation Chemistry

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Foundation Chemistry

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Foundation Chemistry




Table of Contents
Atomic Structure3
Fundamental particles4
The arrangement of the electrons4
Mass number, atomic number and isotopes4
The mass spectrometer5
More about electron arrangements in atoms6
Electron arrangements and ionisation energy6
Amount of Substance9
Relative atomic and molecular masses, the Avogadro constant and the mole10
The ideal…

Page 5

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Foundation Chemistry




Isomerism28
Alkanes30
Alkanes31
Fractional distillation31
Industrial cracking32
Combustion of alkanes32
Glossary of Terms35

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Foundation Chemistry

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Foundation Chemistry




Fundamental Particles
PARTICLE POSITION RELATIVE MASS RELATIVE CHARGE
PROTON Nucleus 1 +1
NEUTRON Nucleus 1 0
1
ELECTRON Orbitals /1836 -1



The Arrangement of the Electrons
An atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element.
Ernst Rutherford said that an atom had a central nucleus.




Mass Number,…

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Foundation Chemistry




i) While a plant or animal is living it takes in carbon (via CO2 or eating) and gives out
carbon (CO2) so the proportion of carbon-14 doesn't change.
When a plant or animal dies the cycle is broken and carbon-14 starts to decay.
In this way, the proportion…

Page 9

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Foundation Chemistry




More about Electron Arrangements in
Atoms
Energy Sub-Levels and Orbitals:

The study of flame spectra shows that energy sub-levels exist.
Electrons exist in orbitals where there is a very high probability of finding an electron (hence
electron density).
Each sub-level contains a specific number of orbitals.
Each orbital…

Page 10

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Foundation Chemistry




ENERGY LEVEL ENERGY SUB-LEVELS POSSIBLE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS PER
ENERGY LEVEL
1 s 2
2 s, p 8
3 s, p, d 18
4 s, p, d, f 32
5 s, p, d, f 32
6 s, p, d, f 32
7 s, p, d, f 32


Electrons…

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