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Foundation Chemistry…read more

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Foundation Chemistry
Table of Contents
Atomic Structure3
Fundamental particles4
The arrangement of the electrons4
Mass number, atomic number and isotopes4
The mass spectrometer5
More about electron arrangements in atoms6
Electron arrangements and ionisation energy6
Amount of Substance9
Relative atomic and molecular masses, the Avogadro constant and the mole10
The ideal gas equation10
Empirical and molecular formulae10
Moles in solutions11
Balanced equations and related calculations11
Balanced equations, atom economies and percentage yields11
The nature of ionic bonding14
Covalent bonding14
Electronegativity- bond polarity in covalent bonds15…read more

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Foundation Chemistry
Fractional distillation31
Industrial cracking32
Combustion of alkanes32
Glossary of Terms35…read more

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Foundation Chemistry
Fundamental Particles
PROTON Nucleus 1 +1
NEUTRON Nucleus 1 0
ELECTRON Orbitals /1836 -1
The Arrangement of the Electrons
An atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element.
Ernst Rutherford said that an atom had a central nucleus.
Mass Number, Atomic Number
and Isotopes
The function of a neutron is to prevent protons from repelling each other.
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.…read more

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Foundation Chemistry
i) While a plant or animal is living it takes in carbon (via CO2 or eating) and gives out
carbon (CO2) so the proportion of carbon-14 doesn't change.
When a plant or animal dies the cycle is broken and carbon-14 starts to decay.
In this way, the proportion of carbon-14 in, let's say a wooden object, can be used to work
out the time from death of the plant and thus the age of the object.…read more

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Foundation Chemistry
More about Electron Arrangements in
Energy Sub-Levels and Orbitals:
The study of flame spectra shows that energy sub-levels exist.
Electrons exist in orbitals where there is a very high probability of finding an electron (hence
electron density).
Each sub-level contains a specific number of orbitals.
Each orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons of opposite `spin'.…read more

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Foundation Chemistry
1 s 2
2 s, p 8
3 s, p, d 18
4 s, p, d, f 32
5 s, p, d, f 32
6 s, p, d, f 32
7 s, p, d, f 32
Electrons go in the lowest orbital available.
You must half fill orbitals first then go back and fill spin pairs to remain as stable as possible.
No orbitals can contain more than two electrons.…read more


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