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| SOCIOLOGY UNIT 1 | CULTURE & IDENTITY | KEYWORDS |
Culture: The shared norms, values, mores and roles of a social group.
Norms: Social expectations or rules about how people should behave in social situations. May not be
formally written. E.g. not shouting or swearing in public.
Values: Beliefs about what is good and bad in society. E.g. free speech, democracy.
Mores: Behaviours that are seen as unacceptable. E.g. incest, murder and rape.
Roles: Patterns of behaviour that are expected from certain people. E.g. police, doctor, teacher.
Subculture: A social group with its own distinctive norms and values, which are different from those of
High Culture: Artistic and intellectual work which is said to be of the highest quality. Enjoyed mainly by a
Low Culture: Lower quality and worth than high cultural work. Enjoyed mainly by the unsophisticated
Folk Culture: Customs and habits of traditional rural communities.
Mass Culture: Culture which is produced and marketed for the mass of the population. It is used to
manipulate the proletariat and disguise their exploitation. E.g. movies, reality TV, newspapers, magazines.
Popular Culture: Shared with large members of the population, reflect the norms and values of the
majority of people. It is the culture of the working class rather than the ruling class. E.g. football, music,
Global Culture: A culture that is shared by individuals across the world. It has emerged due to patterns of
migration, internet and global companies.
Globalisation: Where societies are becoming more interconnected and dependant on each other. The
world is getting smaller, we are highly connected and dependant on other societies.
Cultural Imperialism: A process in which an economically powerful nation is able to impose its own
culture on another smaller, less powerful nation.
Multiculturalism: Different subcultures living side by side in society.
Youth Culture: Shared tastes, activities and styles of young people that help them create their own self
identity and become stable members of society.
Socialisation: The process of learning societies norms, values, roles and mores. Culture is what we learn,
socialisation is the process of learning it.
Primary Socialisation: The process of learning norms and values in early life.
Secondary Socialisation: The process of learning norms and values in later life.
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Agents of Socialisation: A person or group of people who influence the socialisation of children and
adults. They help us learn norms and values as we go through life. These are also called social institutions.
Informal Social Control: Not specially set up to control behaviour but do so with positive and negative
sanctions. E.g. family, education, peer groups, media and religion.
Formal Social Control: The laws, police and courts, armed forces are formal institutions to control
peoples behaviour.…read more
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Social Mobility: A person opportunity to move up the class structure.
Social Status: A persons position in society in relation to others.
Life Chances: The opportunities a person has to achieve good health, social prestige and economic
Sex: Physical and biological differences between men and women.
Gender: Cultural expectations attached to a person sex.
Race: The belief that distinct biological categories of humans exist and these are races. In the 19th century
scientists ranked race in terms of superiority.…read more
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