AQA Psychology Unit 1 Attachment Notes

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  • Created on: 26-04-15 13:27
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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
PSYCHOLOGY ­ ATTACHMENT
Anthropomorphism= Cannot generalise animal research to humans
because we are different
Attachment= A strong, emotional and reciprocal bond between an infant
and their mother
Learning theory= Animals learn behaviours through either association or
reward
1. Classical conditioning= Learning by linking two things together-
learning by association
2. Operant conditioning= Learning by being rewarded for your
behaviour, in other words your behaviour is reinforced by reward
The Learning Theory- Classical Conditioning
Outline key features of the learning theory as an explanation for
attachment [6 Marks]
One explanation is via classical conditioning, food acts as an unconditioned
stimulus (UCS), which produces a feeling of pleasure (unconditioned response).
The presence of a mother who provides food is a neutral stimulus (NS). The
association between the NS and UCS gradually leads to the mother becoming
the conditioned stimulus (CS), as her presence provides the child with a feeling
of pleasure (now the conditioned response).
Operant conditioning would say when the child is fed, this reduces an
uncomfortable hunger drive and produces a feeling of pleasure, which is
reinforcing (primary reinforcement). The person who provide food (usually the
mother), becomes a secondary reinforce and so becomes as important to the
child as the food itself!
Studies Opposing The Learning Theory
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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
Harry Harlow and the Rhesus Monkeys
Stated that monkeys must form their attachments during the first year of
life
Infant monkeys reared with surrogate mothers
2 `surrogate mothers'
One made of bare wires ­ feeding bottle attached
Another made of wire- covered in sort terry towelling cloth
Monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother, and would only go to
the wire mother when hungry
If frightening object was placed in the cage, infant took refuge with the…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
Bowlby believed that attachment was an important adaptive function in humans,
as it promotes survival. Attachments develop during a sensitive period, which is
between 3 and 6 months. Attachments are more difficult to form outside of this
period. Attachment is also reciprocal, as the adult has an innate tendency to
become attached to their child as well as the baby attaching to its carer.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
3. Willingness to explore
4. Reunion behaviour
o The Strange Situation
1. Parent and infant alone.
2. Stranger joins parent and infant.
3. Parent leaves infant and stranger alone.
4. Parent returns and stranger leaves.
5. Parent leaves; infant left completely alone.
6. Stranger returns.
7. Parent returns and stranger leaves.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
room, the infant was allowed to explore and play with toys whilst the mother
sat on a chair and a stranger entering the room as the mother leaves.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
Behaviour of infants in the Strange Situation is dependent on the infants
inborn (genetic) temperament not their mother
Children with `difficult' temperaments (inborn, genetic) who dislike
chance in routine may have been upset by the Strange Situation, and so
may have been seen as insecurely attached
=The inborn temperament of the child affects the behaviour of the infant in the
strange situation (nature)
Caregiver Sensitivity Hypothesis
Ainsworth and Bell
Securely attached children have mothers who are more effective…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
Ethnocentrism= When results from one study in one area, (e.g. USA),
are taken and generalised to all other cultures
(They should all be the same)
Strange Situation's attachment types cannot reflect all societies. What is
insecure in one society may be seen as acceptable in another
Outline and evaluate research related to cultural variations in
attachment
Van Ijzendoorn conducted 32 research studies across 8 different countries,
(Including GB, Sweden, Japan, Chine, etc.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
Disruption of Attachment
Disruption of attachment= A physical separation from the primary
caregiver, which is out of the ordinary, e.g. mother has spend time in
hospital due to operation
Jane, Lucy, Thomas and Kate all under 3 were placed in foster care for a few
weeks and the Robertsons while mothers were in hospital. They tried to keep
routines as similar as possible and arranged regular visits by the father.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
The Robertsons carried out a case study looking a 17 month old boy called
John, who had been sent to a residential nursery for nine days. The boy
displayed a set of behaviour starting with Protest, at being separated from his
parents; Moving to Despair as the nurses failed to provide him with replacement
emotional care; and finally, Detachment, where John refused his mother when
they were reunited.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: ATTACHMENT Chapter 3/3Jemini Barchha
Due to distorted intra-family relationships, hostility, discord or lack of
affection
Research into institutional care
Hodges and Tizard
Procedure
o Natural experiment
o No IV manipulation
>>Raised at home/institute
o Institution: High staff-turnover -> Different staff, so no
children-staff bond
o 65 Children were placed in an institution when they were less than 4
months old
o Little opportunity to form bonds with the staff due to the high
staff-turnover
o Age 4: 24 had been adopted
o…read more

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