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ATTACHMENT
Attachment- an emotional tie or relationship between two people shown in their behaviour

Ethology- study of animals

Maccoby (1980) suggested people with attachment:

Seek proximity- want to be near each other all the time
Distress on separation- distress when they aren't together
Joy on reunion- hugging…

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people by their smell
and voice

THEORIES
Learning theory
Operant conditioning- positive/ negative reinforcement
When baby cries because of hunger
Then it's uncomfortable for the caregiver
So they solve the unpleasant crying by feeding the baby
Negative reinforcement for mother as they want to stop the crying…

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STRANGE SITUATION- ATTACHMENTS TYPES

Methodological: lots of info on attachment, can replicate easily and do in different cultures, lacks
validity, and may provide child's response to separations
Ethical: unfamiliar environment for baby but can be used as good way to measure attachment as it
happens when they…

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Did a meta-analysis of 32 separate studies in 8 countries for strange situation
Shows there are large differences between cultures

Secure attachment- most common in all the cultures surveyed, lowest was in china (50%) and
highest in Britain and Sweden (75%) = more securely attached
Insecure-avoidant attachment-…

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Type of attachment the child and caregiver has: a secured attachment is more likely to cope
better with short separations as they belief their mother will return
Sex of the child: boys respond more strongly to separation than girls
Whom the child is left with and quality…

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Found:
At age 8- children who were adopted had closer attachment to adopted families and children who
went back to biological families where more hostile
Age 16- adopted children still more attached and biological families still more hostile

Methodological: lots of data, interviews etc.
Longitude study- each…

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Repeated when they were 2 ½ and 3 ½ years old
Age of 6 ½ ­ said to carer to describe the child's social skills
Age 8 1/2 ­ give their perception of child's behaviour and relationships with other peers

Found:
Who spend long days at childcare…

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Studies/Theories

Attachment

Maccoby Separation anxiety, distress and joy on reunion
Operant conditioning Positive/negative reinforcement
hugs/food are rewards so baby repeats actions
Classical conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (food) paired with
unconditioned response (relief from being fed)
which is done by neutral stimulus (caregiver)
Social learning theory Learn from parents…

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