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Types Of Research
Type of research Strengths Limitations
Qualitative Rich and detailed Difficult to replicate
(non-numerical data) ­ Meaningful Difficult to analyse
focuses on a participants High validity Low reliability (very
thoughts and feelings. personal, subjective
account)
Quantitative Easy to analyse Less meaningful
(numerical data ­ Can replicate Low in ecological validity
involves measuring More objective
behaviour in a numerical
way.…read more

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Keywords
· Independent variable (IV) ­ is the variable the researcher
manipulates.
­ Has two conditions, e.g. noisy or not noisy
· Dependent variable (DV) ­ is the variable the researcher
measures.
­ e.g. time taken to complete a brain test
· Extraneous variable ­ variables that are not the IV but
affect the DV.…read more

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Hypotheses
· Testable Statement
· Null ­ Saying the IV has no effect on the DV. "Whether it is noisy or not has
no effect on time taken to complete a brain test."
· Non-directional ­ Saying the IV has an effect on the DV. "Whether it is noisy
or not has an effect on time take to complete a brain test."
· Directional ­ Saying the IV has an effect on the DV and what effect it has. "It
takes longer to complete a brain test if it is noisy than if it isn't."…read more

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Experiments
· Experiments exists when the researcher manipulates the independent
variable to see how it affects the dependent variable.
· The researcher can then establish a cause and effect relationship between
the IV and the DV.
· Laboratory experiments are done in a carefully controlled environment,
which does not actually have to be in a laboratory experiment.
· A field experiment is an experiment that takes place in a natural
environment.
· A quasi experiment occurs in cases where there is no random allocation to
conditions and thus no directly controlled manipulation of the IV by the
researcher.…read more

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Evaluation of experiments
Experiment Strengths Limitations
Laboratory High control of variables Artificial situation
Can infer cause and effect Low ecological validity
Ethical ­ participants know
they are taking part
Field Natural behaviour and Less ethical ­ participants
environment may not know they are
Great ecological validity taking part
Low control of variables
Quasi Allow for investigation using No random allocation/direct
pre-existing variables manipulation, so less
confidence inferring cause
and effect…read more

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