Other slides in this set

Slide 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Behaviourist Approach
Basic Assumptions:
O All behaviour is learned from experience.
O We are born a `blank slate' for experience to write on.
O All learning can be explained in terms of stimulus-response links.
O Reinforcement strengthens behaviour and punishment stops a
behaviour.
O Psychology should be scientific and objective. The only valid
material to study is behaviour.
O Internal mental processes cannot be studied scientifically. The
experimental method is the only objective and scientific method to
use.
O It is valid to generalise from animal behaviour to human behaviour.
Most research is conducted on animals such as rats, pigeons and
monkeys.…read more

Slide 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Classical Conditioning…read more

Slide 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

What did Pavlov learn
from this?
O Pavlov learnt that where there is a long time gap between the two
stimuli, the association between the two is not learned.
O If the bell (conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly sounded with the
food, salivation (conditioned response) slowly disappears. The
behaviour is extinguished.
O The conditioned stimulus could be change in tone and volume but
can still get the response of salivation. This is called stimulus
generalisation.
O A point is reached when the sound of the bell is so different that the
conditioned response does not happen. This is called stimulus
discrimination.
O If the conditioned response had been extinguished, then at a later
time the dog would sometimes salivate at the sound of the bell.
This is called spontaneous recovery of the conditional behaviour.…read more

Slide 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Example of classical
conditioning.
O Watson and Rayner (1920) used a nine month old boy Albert to
condition a fear to white rats.
O Initially, Albert was not afraid of white rats but he was afraid of loud
sounds.
O Watson and Rayner the struck a metal bar with a hammer. This was
a unconditioned stimulus that caused an unconditioned response.
O They then placed the rat in front of Albert and at the same time made
the loud noise.
O After several pairings of the rat and the loud noise Albert showed fear
and moved away from the rat.
O They then place the rat (conditioned stimulus) without the loud
noise and Albert showed fear (conditioned response).…read more

Slide 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Operant Conditioning
O Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-90)
claimed that all behaviour is learned
from the consequences of behaviour.
He called this operant conditioning.
O This is when a behaviour becomes
more or less likely as a result of its
consequences. The consequences of
behaviour can be either rewarding or
punishing.
O Behaviour that receives a punishment
are less likely to be repeated whereas
behaviour that receives a reward are
more likely to be repeated.…read more

Slide 7

Preview of page 7
Preview of page 7

Slide 8

Preview of page 8
Preview of page 8

Slide 9

Preview of page 9
Preview of page 9

Slide 10

Preview of page 10
Preview of page 10

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »