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Reward/Need satisfaction theory; Byrne and Clore, 1970 AO1(FORMATION)
We spend a lot of time is social relationships because they are rewarding and we
don't like being alone because it is unrewarding.
We become attracted to people through classical( association) or operant
(directly) conditioning
Operant conditioning: Rewarding stimuli (which can…

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Gender differences- in many cultures and gender differences women are more
socialised into being more attentive to the needs of others (children and

Similarity theory; Byrne, Clore and Smeaton, 1986 (FORMATION)
We are attracted to those similar to us.
There are two distinct stages in the formation of relationships;…

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The model is too simplistic and assumes we form relationships based on just
It ignores other factors

Social exchange theory; Thibaut & Kelley (1959) (Maintenance)
assumes that everyone tries to maximise the rewards (e.g. affection attention)
from a relationship, and to minimise the costs (e.g. devoting time and effort…

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Social exchange theory does not explain why some people leave relationships,
despite having no alternative, nor does it suggest how great the disparity in CL
has to be to become unsatisfactory.

Equity theory; Walster et al (1978) (Maintenance)
People expect to receive rewards from a relationship which are proportional to…

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Assumes that people are very selfish and self-centred in their friendships and
relationships. This assumption may possess some validity in an individualist
society such as the USA but is less likely to apply in collectivists societies. ­
Culturally bias
It is quite subjective what people see as fair / balanced…

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Long distant romantic relationships (LDRR) & long-distance friendships (LDF) are
more common than we think. One study found that 70% of students sampled had
experienced at least 1 LDRR and 90% said they had experienced 1 LDF

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emotional growth. These students reported that breaking up with their partner
had given them new insights into themselves and a clearer idea about future
partners. Through grave-dressing and resurrection processes, they were able to
put the original relationship to rest and get on with their lives.
Gender differences- Women are…

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In contrast to women, men appear to lower their standards in terms of short
term mating opportunities; looking for quantity not quality (Buss and
Schmidt, 1993); after this there is a decrease in attraction after sex thus
preventing too much time with one woman.

Long term mating preferences;
In long…

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the genetic quality of any offspring. Low-quality mates will be more likely to
produce unattractive, unhealthy children.
Buss suggested that men go for younger women because they are likely to be
fertile however some critics suggest it is because younger women are easier to
control and so preferred as mates.…

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investment in their children, they have a greater concern than females about the
fidelity of their mates (Miller, 1998). As a result, they try to ensure that their care
is not misdirected towards non-relatives - e.g through adultery laws that define
the offense in terms of the women's marital status,…


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