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Cognitive effects ­ anxiety is in thoughts and can vary from mild feelings of worry to severe panic

Behavioural effects ­ a person may learn to avoid certain situations in order to prevent feelings of
anxiety occurring in the first place.

Avoidance behaviour…

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Observational learning ­ Phobia develops vicariously; where you learn the phobia by observing
someone else experience pain or upset from an object or situation

Role model ­ watching someone you see as a role model act highly emotional or in an extreme way can
cause the person to develop a…

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Neurotransmitters ­ the brain abnormalities associated with anxiety are to do with neurotransmitters
especially norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. Drugs change the levels of these neurotransmitters
in the brain

Dependency ­ drugs such as anti-anxiety drugs used to treat agoraphobia often produce a dependency,
and coming off a drug is a…

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder ­ a disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a
need to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both (Comer 2008). DSM describes the main symptoms
of OCD as;

Recurrent obsession and compulsions
Recognition by the individual that the obsessions and compulsions are excessive

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Ego tries to reduce the feelings of anxiety by using defense mechanisms

Defense mechanism ­ like with phobias the ego uses defense mechanisms. The ego does this in an
attempt to get rid of unacceptable obsessive thoughts. The most common defense mechanisms include;

Reaction formation ­ behaviour is the opposite…

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Psychodynamic treatment ­ Very similar to the psychodynamic treatment of phobias. Uses free
association and dream analysis in an attempt to uncover the unconscious conflicts from the anal and
phallic stages. It tries to get to the underlying cause of the disorder and assumes that the
obsessive-compulsive symptoms will disappear…


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