AQA Population change

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  • Created on: 05-04-11 19:50
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Population Change
In 2011 the world population is 6.8 billion. It grew very rapidly in the last century but its growth is
now slowing down. The growth rate in some areas such as Europe and North America is quite slow
whereas in others, such as Africa, it remains high despite disease and poverty.
Basic Demographic Equation
Total population = Natural Change ± Net migration
Natural Increase Immigration ± Emigration
= B.R>D.R
Natural Decrease
=B.R<D.R
Death rates are relatively stable. It is the birth rate which has the biggest impact on natural change.
Reasons why the population is not evenly distributed around the world:
Industrial River Valleys Rainforests Polar Areas High Hot Deserts
Areas Bangladesh Amazonia Antarctica Mountains Sahara
West Europe River Nile Congo N Canada Andes Namibia
NE USA Pakistan Indonesia N Europe Rockies Australian
England E China N America N Asia Himalayas
Rich coal and Flat land is easy Constant heavy Temperatures Low Under 250mm
iron deposits to farm and rains leach are below 10 C temperatures rainfall per year,
started industry floods annually ­ nutrients from all year, strong and steep many years no
in 19th century. fertile silt on soil once tree winds means slopes with thin rain. Agriculture
Since become flood plain-rich cover is little can grow soils make difficult
varied removed. farming difficult
Flat land and Nearby water High Soils are frozen Steep slope and Soils are thin
fertile soils allow allows 2 crops temperatures for most of the great heights with few
a variety of per year and humidity year and when make building, nutrients and

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Many areas bare
people and disease and surface water, rock/sand.
allowing them to pests. also blizzards. Farming difficult
work in
industry..…read more

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Advantages:
Good theoretical model to show rapid and dynamic change over time since the 1700s to present
day
Can be used by other countries to replicate development
Explains why there was development
Can be used by governments to predict future population change so they can implement certain
policies
Disadvantages:
Assumes industrialisation is the reason for development- not always the case, sometimes through
colonisation
Doesn't always work for LEDCs they may not have the optimum population to pass through each
stage yet
Very Euro central
Can…read more

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An ageing
population
Stage 5-Decline A relatively new stage where birth rates are lower
Birth Rates-Slowly falling than death rates. This is because people live
Death Rates-Low fluctuating longer with better medical care. Other reasons for
the low birth rate are: a rise in individualism;
Population growth rate-Negative
women working; concern about the impact of
Population size-Slowly falling increased population numbers of the resources for
e.g.…read more

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China
s
Weak Strong
Country Policy Successful of not?
India Sterilisation 1970s Partially lowered birth rate but stopped as highly
controversial
Emancipation of Women Successful as population growth slowed down
(Kerala) and less births, natural increase now only 1.2%
Niger To reduce the average Unsuccessful, wrecked by male domination and
number of children per lack of education for women, men forbid use of
women from 7.1 to 5 contraception and believe large families are good
to work on farms. Only 5% of women use
contraception.…read more

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Falling Birth rates
More use of contraception/family planning
Career orinentated women
Later marriages, fewer children
Concept of `childless couple'
Fertility rate=1.…read more

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Types of Migration
Push Factors Pull Factors
- No job - Job opportunities
- Poor quality of life - Good quality of life
- Low paid jobs - Highly paid jobs
- Poor weather - Good weather
- Poor education - Good education
- Wars + conflict - Safer environment to live in
- Natural disaster e.g.…read more

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Reasons why people migrate
1) Economic reasons= jobs, money etc
2) Social reasons= family, better quality of life, wars etc
3) Environmental reasons= weather, disasters etc
4) Political reasons= corruption etc
Refugee Migration into the European Union…read more

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