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Turning Forces
A moment is the turning effect of a force:
Moment (Nm) = force (N) x perpendicular distance from the pivot (m).

If the force or perpendicular distance is increased then the moment will be increased.

The centre of mass of an object is the point where its mass…

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A satellite in a geostationary orbit has a period of 24 hours and stays at the same position
directly above the Earths equator.

Geostationary orbits are usually used for communications satellites.

Low polar orbits are used for monitoring satellites.

Light and Sound
The normal at a point on a mirror…

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The pitch of a note depends on the frequency of the sound waves.

Ultrasonic waves have a frequency above 18000 kHz. They are partially reflected at a
boundary between two substances and they are non-ionising.

Uses of ultrasonic waves include cleaning devices, flaw detectors and medical scanners.


In the…

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High mass star: protostar > main stage> red giant > white dwarf > supernova > neutron star >
black hole if sufficient mass.

Light elements (e.g. iron) are formed inside stars as a result of nuclear fusion.

Heavy elements (e.g. lead) are formed when a massive star collapses than explodes…


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