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Refraction of Light

Refraction is the change of direction that occurs when light passes non-normally across a boundary
between two transparent mediums. No refraction takes place if the incident ray is along the normal

At a boundary between two transparent substances, the light ray bends towards the normal if it…

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The first slit is used to help polarise the light from the lamp, it then goes through the double slits
which act as coherent sources of waves which emit light waves with a constant phase difference and
the same frequency. The interference is then shown on the screen producing alternate…

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Total internal reflection can only take place if the incident substance has a larger refractive index than
the other substance and if the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle. The angle of refraction is
always 90° at the critical angle i.

A communications optical fibre allows pulses of light…

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· Sources are coherent if they have the same frequency and a constant phase difference.

· Light from two nearby lamp bulbs can not from an interference pattern because the light
waves are emitted at random, meaning there is not a constant phase difference. Points of
cancellation and reinforcement…

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The central fringe is twice as wide as each of the outer fringes. And much brighter. The peak intensity
of each fringe decreases with distance from the centre The outer fringes all have the same width and
are much less intense than the central frige.

If different sources of monochromatic…

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The Diffraction Grating Equation

dsin = n

1. The number of slits per metre on the grating, N = 1/d

2. When given an order and wavelength the smaller teh value of d, the greater the angle of

3. Fractions of a degree are expressed either as a decimal…

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Thank you! This is much better than the textbook and my teacher, I actually think I might learn this chapter from this :)

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