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The turning effect of a force is a moment

Moment (Nm) = force (N) x perpendicular distance (m)

The centre of mass of a body is that point where the mass may be thought to be concentrated.

If suspended, a body will come to rest with its centre of…

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Planets and satellites
The earth, moon and sun and all other bodies attract each other with gravity

The bigger the masses of bodies the bigger the force of gravity between them

As the distance between two bodies increases the force of gravity between them decreases

The orbit of any planet…

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Lenses and construction lines


Sound is caused by mechanical
vibration and travels as a wave

Sounds in the range 20 ­
20000Hz can be detected by
the human ear

Sound cannot travel through a

The pitch of a note increases as
the amplitude of the wave


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Ultra sound
Electronic systems can be used to produce ultra sound waves which have a frequency higher than
the upper limit of hearing for humans.

Ultra sound waves are partially reflected when they meet a boundary between two different media.
The time taken for the reflections to reach a detector…

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Generators ­producing electricity

If an electrical conductor cuts through magnetic field lines, an electrical p.d is induced across the
ends of the conductor.

If a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, an electric p.d is induced across the ends of the coil.

If the wire is part of…

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History of a star

Our sun is one of the many billions of stars in the milky way galaxy

The universe is made up of billions of galaxies

Stars form when enough dust and gas from space is pulled together by gravitational attraction.
Smaller masses may also form and be…


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