AQA Physics 3 GCSE

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  • Created on: 09-06-10 11:16
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Forces
The turning effect of a force is a moment
Moment (Nm) = force (N) x perpendicular distance (m)
The centre of mass of a body is that point where the mass may be thought to be concentrated.
If suspended, a body will come to rest with its centre of mass directly below the point of suspension.
The centre of mass of a symmetrical body is along the axis of symmetry.
If a body is not turning, the total clockwise moment must be exactly balanced by the total
anticlockwise moment about any axis.
If the line of action of the weight of a body lies outside the base of the body there will be a resultant
moment and the body will topple.
Centripetal forces
When a body moves in a circle it continuously accelerates towards the centre of the circle. The
acceleration changes the velocity, not its speed.
The resultant force causing this acceleration is called the centripetal force.
The direction of the centripetal force is always towards the centre of the circle.
The centripetal force needed to make a body perform circular motion increases as:
The mass of the body increases
The speed of the body increases
The radius of the circle decreases

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Planets and satellites
The earth, moon and sun and all other bodies attract each other with gravity
The bigger the masses of bodies the bigger the force of gravity between them
As the distance between two bodies increases the force of gravity between them decreases
The orbit of any planet is an eclipse with the sun at one focus
Gravitational force provides the centripetal force that allows planets and satellites to maintain their
circular orbits.…read more

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Lenses and construction lines
Sound
Sound is caused by mechanical
vibration and travels as a wave
Sounds in the range 20 ­
20000Hz can be detected by
the human ear
Sound cannot travel through a
vacuum
The pitch of a note increases as
the amplitude of the wave
increases
The quality of a note depends
upon the waveform
Sound waves can be reflected
and refracted.…read more

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Ultra sound
Electronic systems can be used to produce ultra sound waves which have a frequency higher than
the upper limit of hearing for humans.
Ultra sound waves are partially reflected when they meet a boundary between two different media.
The time taken for the reflections to reach a detector is a measure of how far away such a boundary
is.
Ultrasound waves can be used in industry for cleaning and quality control.
Ultrasound waves can be used in medicine for prenatal scans.…read more

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Generators ­producing electricity
If an electrical conductor cuts through magnetic field lines, an electrical p.d is induced across the
ends of the conductor.
If a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, an electric p.d is induced across the ends of the coil.
If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current is induced in the wire.
If the direction of motion, or the polarity of the magnet, is reversed, the direction of the induced p.d
and the induced current is reversed.…read more

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History of a star
Our sun is one of the many billions of stars in the milky way galaxy
The universe is made up of billions of galaxies
Stars form when enough dust and gas from space is pulled together by gravitational attraction.
Smaller masses may also form and be attracted by a larger mass to become planets.…read more

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