Slides in this set
Motivation = "the internal mechanisms and external stimuli which arouse and direct
Is the inner drives towards achieving a goal
Depends on external pressures
Concerns the intensity and direction of behaviour
Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation
· The drive that comes from within · The drive experienced when offered an
· The need to achieve something for personal external reward (e.g. a prize, medal, money,
· A sense of mastery and accomplishment · Tangible rewards = the rewards that can be
· May be feelings of self-worth or status touched, held or have physical substance (e.g.
medals, trophies and money)
· Intangible rewards = external rewards that
cannot be touched (e.g. Cheers of a crowd,
congratulations, praise.…read more
The strengths and limitations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation:
Intrinsic · Research suggests that intrinsic motivation · Less relevant in professionalism e.g.
is longer lasting than extrinsic. football players go where the money is
· Younger people place more importance on rather than playing for their home team.
fun/enjoyment/ skill improvement rather than
Extrinsic · Material rewards increase the probability of · Overuse of extrinsic motivation can lead
a particular behaviour occurring again. to a decrease in intrinsic motivation (e.g. no
· Can encourage initial participation. reward = do not wish to participate. The
· Can motivate to continue. reward has acted as a distracter to the
· Can revive diminishing motivation. performer.
· The notion of a reward transforms what
was regarded as a fun activity into a chore.
The idea of a reward removes the notion of
the performer being in control of the
·Too much pressure may lead to cheating.…read more
Theories of Skill Learning
Psycho-motor learning theories Cognitive learning theories Social learning theories
Operant conditioning Adams' close loop theory Social learning theory
Schmidt's schema theory Observational learning
PSYCO-MOTOR LEARNING THEORIES
What is it?
Operant conditioning is an example of an associationist or connectionist theory of learning, relying upon
the connection between a stimulus and a response (S-R bond).
The theory states that we become conditioned to give a particular response to a particular stimulus. The
response is dependent upon the strength of the bond if the bond is weak the response isn't likely, but
if the response is strong the response is likely.
One method of getting the performer to produced the desired behaviour is trail and error the objective
is explained to the learner and then the learner is allowed to experiment with different ways of achieving
Alternatively the teacher may show a demonstration of a method of skill and then asks the children to
go and try this for themselves. This is more likely to lead to the desired performance.…read more
Theories of Skill Learning
Creating the link or bond between the stimulus and response requires reinforcement.
There are three types of reinforcement:
Positive reinforcement a process by which the performer associates the correct response to a stimulus, strengthening the S-
R bond. Positive reinforcement is achieved by rewarding the correct response rewards are generally extrinsic and may be
tangible or intangible. We are all motivated to achieve rewards, so we experience a drive to repeat the action to gain a reward.
We will also recieve an internal reward (feelings of satisfaction, success and improved self worth).
Negative reinforcement giving an aversive action (something which the learner does not like) when they give the wrong
response and then stopping the aversive action when the learner gives the correct response, strengthening the S-R bond.
Punishment seeks to break the S-R bond, because the wrong response is given to the stimulus.
Another aspect of operant conditioning is shaping where an action that is closer to the desired action is rewarded by positive
reinforcement but an action that is further from the desired action receives negative reinforcement. The learner gradually moves
closer to the desired action.
Criticisms of operant conditioning and psycho-motor skill learning:
The learner is not required to understand why they should do something, and a lack of understanding may be de-
Trial and error learning may lead to the wrong technique being adopted.
The learner may not know how to react when the stimulus is different from those already experienced due to their lack of
understanding, and they may not know what response to use.
This form of learning implies that for every skill or performance situation a stimulus-response bond has been created, and
this seems unlikely because of the vast number of S-R links.
Beginners do not act well to negative reinforcement or punishment, this may be de-motivating.…read more
Theories of Skill Learning
Adams' closed loop theory
Movement is initiated by a memory trace. The memory trace of the motor programme is
stored in our long-term memory and is developed as a result of experience and external
Once initiated, movements are controlled by the perceptual trace. Skill learning requires
the development of the perceptual trace through using both internal (kinaesthetic) and
external (e.g. auditory/visual).
The perceptual trace acts as an ongoing comparison for the performer to compare and
evaluate the correctness of their movements (compares what you should be doing to what
you are actually doing).
If there is a mismatch between the memory trace and the perceptual trace the performer
attempts to eliminate the error by changing the movement learning becomes a process
of eliminating errors.
Used to explain how we adapt a movement to achieve a goal (e.g. Running to catch a ball)…read more