AQA Keeping Healthy (2) – Biology Core science

Revison for keeping healthy part 2 for AQA B1

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  • Created on: 30-12-12 14:50
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Keeping Healthy ­ Biology Core science
Defending against infection
Pathogens: bacteria
Bact
eri
a and
vir
uses
are
the
mai
n t
ypes
of
pat
hogen.
Bact
eri
a ar
e mi
croscopi
c
or
ganis
ms .
Bacter
ia
are
li
vi
ng cel
ls
and,
in
favour
able
condit
ions,
can
mu l
ti
ply
rapi
dly.
Once
i
nside
the
body,
they
rel
ease poi
sons or
t
oxins
that
make us
feel
i
ll
.
D i
seases
caused
by bact
eri
a i
ncl
u de:
Food
poisoni
ng
Chol
era
Typhoi
d
Whooping
cough
Pathogens: viruses
Vi
ruses are
all
o t
smal l
er
than bact
e r
ia
an d
are t
he small
est
organi
sms know
t
he y
consist
of
a f
ragme nt
of
gene t
ic
ma t
e r
ial
onsi
de of
a pr
otect
ive
protei
n
coat.
Vi
ruses can only
reprodu ce
insi
de host
cell
s
they
da mage the
cel
ls
w hi
lst
doi
n g
thi
s.
Th e vi
rus
c an get
insi
de a
ce l
l
and t
ake over,
making
hun dr
eds of
t
ho usands
of copies
o f
it
sel
f.
Eventuall
y t
he copi
es of
the
vir
us f
il
l
the
host
cel
l
an d
burst
it
open.
The
vir
uses are
then passed
ou t
i
n t
he bl
oodstream,
ai
rways and other
rou t
es spreadi
n g
throughout.
Di
seases
caused
by
vir
uses
incl
ude:
I
nfl
uenza (
fl
u)
Col
ds
Measles
Mump s
Rubel
la
Chi
cken pox
AI
D s.
You do not need to know the structure of viruses for your exam

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Page 2

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White blood cells
Whi
te
blood
cel
ls
can:
I
ngest
pathogens and
dest
roy
them
Produce
anti
bodies
to
dest
roy
part
icul
ar
pathogens
Produce
anti
toxi
ns t
hat
count
eract
t
he t
oxins
rel
eased
by
pat
hogens.…read more

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Some
exampl
es
w oul
d be
aspi
ri
n,
par
acet
amol
and
ibupr
ofen.
Anti
biot
ics
can act
uall
y ki
l
l
or
prevent
t
he
growth
of
the
bacter
ia
causing
the
il
lness.…read more

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A nti
biot
ics are su bst
a nc es
that
kil
l
bacter i
a or
stop t
he i
r growth.
T hey do
n ot w or
k against
vir
uses because
t hey
li
ve and r
e produc e i
nside
c el
ls.
I
t
is d i
ff
icul
t
to deve l
o p
drugs that
kil
l
viru ses
w i
thout
also damaging
the
b ody's
ti
ssu es.…read more

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