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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]




The process of heating where water changes from a liquid to a
Evaporation
vapour
Condensation The process by which cooling vapour turns into a liquid

Precipitation Water that falls to the Earth's surface. E.g. rain/snow

Surface runoff The movement of water…

Page 2

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]


Meander A bend in the river channel
A horseshoe or semi-circular area that represents the former
Oxbow lake
course of a river.
The flat area adjacent to the river channel, in the lower course.
Flood plain This created as a natural…

Page 3

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]




DRAINAGE BASIN

However the drainage basin is an open system and is part of the world's hydrological cycle.
A drainage basin, also known as a `River Basin' or as the `Catchment of a river,' is the area which is
drained by…

Page 4

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]


UPPER
COURSE

The main
process of a river
in its upper course
is erosion ­ the
wearing away
of the land. There
are four types
of river
erosion;




Hydraulic Action
o The force of the water erodes the bed and banks…

Page 5

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]




Landforms in the Upper Course
V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs
Rapids
Waterfalls
In the upper course of the river (near the source) vertical erosion is dominant and so the features
above are all formed by vertical erosion.

V-shaped valleys
A rivers…

Page 6

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]

Page 7

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]


MIDDLE COURSE

As the course of the river approaches its middle course it flows over flat land, her lateral erosion is
dominant as the river swings in large meanders.

Meanders
Meanders and oxbow lakes are characteristics of the middle course of…

Page 8

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]


LOWER COURSE
Floodplains and levees are landforms formed by deposition in the lower course of the river.

Floodplains
In the lower course of a river channel, there is an area of flat land called a floodplain. This area gets
covered in…

Page 9

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]


LONG AND CHANGING CROSS PROFILES

The long profile shows how the river changes in height along its course.
The steep reduction in height near the source gives way to a more gradual reduction further
downstream, giving a typical concave profile. The…

Page 10

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Geography [TOPIC 3 ­ WATER ON THE LAND (RIVERS)]


FLOOD HYDROGRAPHS

A hydrograph shows how a rivers discharge changes over time in response to a rainfall event.




The rivers discharge increases until it reaches its peak discharge. Surface runoff is the first water to
reach the river and then throughflow.…

Comments

Kav

Thanks! Really helped me out ... it's exactly what we covered in school!

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