AQA Geography skills AS/A2

CHARLONATE, oh god excuse me ive got the hiccups again. We daleks can get the hiccups you know :(. Its the Sol 3's air which gives it to us.

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Geography skills
Cartographic diagrams
Dispersion Diagrams
A graph where the data sets can be placed in one column with the variable on the vertical axes of the
Shows the spread from the mean.
Very visual.
Gives an indication of the reliability of the data.
Can work out mean, range, mode, median, lower quartile, upper quartile and interquartile range.
Can compare graphs easily using the above ^ for analysis.
Anomalies can be shown.
Can work out standard deviation.
Works better with lots of data.
The standard deviation can easily be manipulated and can be bias.
Radial Diagrams
This shows how a variable e.g. wind direction changes due an independent variable e.g. direction etc.
Can compare multiple sets of data.
Lots of data can be put on one graph.
Individual variables within the diagram can be compared.
No stats tests can be linked to them.
Hard to spot anomalies.
Hard to make a scale suitable.

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Kite Diagrams
This is often used to show the abundance of particular plant species varies with distance as the wider
the data points means that the more common they are.
Clear and easy to interpret.
Shows changes over distance.
Shows density and distribution of variables.
Not all data can be represented by these charts.
Time consuming to plot by hand.…read more

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Can be tedious and time consuming to construct by hand.
Can be difficult to read accurately.
Can often require additional information for them to be useful.
Dot Maps
This shows distribution of data over an area, e.g. instances of disease over an area
Effective in showing the spatial density.
Shows variation and pattern.
Easy to interpret.
Purpose is easily understood.
Easy to generate on a computer.
Actual values can't be seen.
Dots crowded/can lead to clustering not very accurate.…read more

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Very visual
Can represent a large range of data.
Not dependent on size of the area.
Difficult to produce.
Not accurate/ can't extract exact data.
Overlap can occur making it confusing and difficult to read/interpret.
Flow Lines, Desire and Trip Lines
Flow lines are where width of the arrow represents a flow rate also which direction the flow is moving
often used for rivers discharge. Desire lines shows where a population moves from one area to another,
e.g. animals migrating.…read more

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Isoline graphs are where data points on a map are joined up with data points of equal values, e.g.
contour lines on a map.
Drawn easily on computers.
Can see areas of equal value.
Can see gradual changes.
Avoids the problem of boundary lines.
Do not show discontinuous distributions.
Only work where there is plenty of data spread over the study area and the changes are
Small lines and numbers on graphs can be difficult to read.…read more

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A chi square test is used to investigate whether distributions of categorical variables where the answer
are in a fixed range e.g. gender, differ from one another by using expected and observed frequency. To
calculate the degrees of freedom use (n1) where n is the number of categories of data, this would then
give you a value of the table then if the calculated value is higher than this you can reject your null
hypothesis and accept the alternate.…read more

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Mann Whitney
This test uses the median values between sets of data to see if there is any correlation between a set of
data. For this test we take the lowest calculated value and if this is smaller than this critical value we
can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis. This test is best when there is
between 5 to 20 sample sizes. The null hypothesis is always: there is no significant difference in the two
sets of data.…read more


Aidan Poon

This is absolutely amazing.  Thank you to whoever uploaded this!!! Clearly shows everything you need!

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