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Page 1

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]




The outer layer of the earth. Ranges in thickness
Crust
between 6 to 70km.
Filled with magma. Temperatures range from
Mantle
5000°C to 13000°C.
Outer Core Is liquid and largely made up of iron.
Solid and also made up of iron. Temperatures…

Page 2

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


The Earth is over 4600 million years old




There are two types of crust; oceanic crust and continental crust

Oceanic Crust Continental Crust
Newer ­ less than 200 million years old Older, over 1500 years old
Denser Less dense
Can sink Cannot…

Page 3

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]

Page 4

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


PLATE BOUNDARIES

There are four different types of plate boundary
Destructive
Collision
Constructive
Conservative

DESTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARIES

Oceanic plates move towards continental plate and is forced
underneath it
The oceanic plate is forced down causing severe earthquakes
Hot liquid rock (magma) rises,…

Page 5

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


VOLCANOES

Constructive Plate Boundaries
As the plates move apart, magma rises upward from the mantle to fill the gap. This adds new rock to
the spreading plate. Some of the magma may also be forced out to the surface through a vent.…

Page 6

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


SUPER VOLCANOES

What is a super volcano?
A super volcano is a colossal volcano that erupts at least 1000km3 of material.
They do not look like a volcano as they are not cone shaped. Instead they are large depressions
called calderas (a…

Page 7

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]



Disadvantages
Explosions lead to
o Dangerous gases
o Loss of life
o Loss of homes, animals and crops
o Disease and fires
o Avalanches, mudflows and floods
o Loss of wildlife and vegetation




PREDICTING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Before an eruption magma moves into…

Page 8

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


Case study: Chances Peak, Montserrat, 1995-97 - an LEDC
Montserrat is a small island in the Caribbean which is still a British colony. Many of the residents were
poor living in small villages and practicing
substance farming. Before the eruption the
population…

Page 9

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


An exclusion zone was set up in the volcanic region.
A volcanic observatory was built to monitor the volcano.
New roads and a new airport were built.
Services in the north of the island were expanded.
EARTHQUAKES

Earthquakes are vibrations caused by…

Page 10

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Geography [TOPIC 2 ­ RESTLESS EARTH (PLATE TECTONICS)]


Where the focus is;
o A shallow focus will cause more damage and deaths as it is nearer the surface,
The magnitude of the earthquake on the Richterscale
Grounds made of sands and clays vibrate more causing more damage.


EFFECTS OF AN…

Comments

daisy


VERY GOOD!!! i only wish that you do the coastal zone aswell :( - i would get a whole matching set ;) thanks x

trying4law

Perfect notes - brilliantly laid out! Such a shame I did completely different case studies...WHY IS MY SCHOOL DOING DIFFERENT THNGS TO EVERYONE ELSE?? but still, thank so much!

Isha112

These notes are awesome! Your notes taught me better than my school did!

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