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Page 1

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The Restless Earth
Nature of the earth's crust
Distribution of plates
The earth's crust is split up into plates.
They vary in size
Types of plates

Oceanic Continental

Newer ­ most are less than 200 Older ­ most are over 1500 million
million years old. years old

Can be renewed…

Page 2

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· Earth quakes occur as the magma erupts to the surface.
· Eventually volcanoes are found here due to the build up of new
rock
· After many eruptions, the volcanoes often erupt out of the sea to
form volcanic islands.
Conservative
· Plates moving side by side.
· Because…

Page 3

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Farming
· Subsidence farming
Terraces have been built into the mountainsides.
The flat areas retain water and nutrients that would
otherwise drain away, making the land more fertile and
suitable for farming.
· Lamas
Provide transport for goods and people
Provide meat, wool and milk.
Surefooted and strong so suitable…

Page 4

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Acid lava: Viscous which means it Basic lava: Runny which means it
doesn't travel far before cooling. flows long distances before cooling.
Tall cone, narrow base, steep sides Low cone, wide base, gentle slopes
Violent eruptions Calm eruptions


Living near a volcano
Advantages
· Geothermal energy
Cheap electricity as no…

Page 5

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Local economy boosted as a result of tourism; everyone
wants to see the `famous' volcano.
· Negative
Lives lost
Ecosystems damaged
Housing, farmland and woodland destroyed.
The economy has suffered.
Responses
· Immediate
Shelter offered
Search and rescue for survivors
Ash cleared to allow traffic to flow
Distribution of masks…

Page 6

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and mineral
composition of
water.


Super volcanoes
Characteristics
Mega colossal volcano
Erupts at least 1000km3 of material.
Have calderas
· Depression marking the extent of the collapsed magma chamber.
Formation
Magma rises at a weak point in the earth's crust: hotspot
Magma creates a large bulge in the earth's surface…

Page 7

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Constructive Friction and pressure from plates
moving apart produces less severe
earthquakes.
Conservative As plates slide past each other they
often get stuck. The pressure builds
until released in the form of an
earthquake.


Features
Epicentre
· The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus
Focus
· The…

Page 8

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Cause
· Indian and Eurasian plate colliding
Effects
· Primary
88,000 people killed
374, 000 people seriously injured
80% of buildings collapsed
Telecommunication links were broken
· Secondary
11 million people were homeless
Roads blocked by landslides
$75 million worth of damage
Landslides blocked rivers
Responses
· Immediate
Foreign aid…

Page 9

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Further 6 months to fix all of the roads
New rules for buildings to ensure less damage next time
Built further apart to stop domino effects
Flexible steel frames for high rise buildings
Rubber blocks under bridges to act as shock
absorbers
Differences
Effects
· More people killed and injured…

Page 10

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Computer controlled weights on the roofs of buildings that
counteract the shaking of an earthquake.
Fire resistant building materials
Automatic window shutters to prevent falling glass
Steel frame that can sway with the earth movement
· How it will help
There will be less damage
Less to repair
Saves money…

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