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The Coastal Zone
Shaping of the Coast
· Freeze thaw
Water fills a crack or joint in a rock
The water freezes and expands exerting pressure on the
The crack is widened as a result.
Repeated freeze-thaw action weakens the rock.
Eventually the rock splits and loose…

Page 2

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· They do most of the deposition
· They have a stronger swash than backwash which allows material to
be carried up the beach.
· Found in sheltered areas such as bays.
· They do most of the erosion
· Their backwash is stronger than the swash…

Page 3

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· Calm seas and light winds.
· Where waves meet a bend in the coast line.
As a result of erosion
Headlands and bays
· Characteristics
Headlands are areas of land protruding out into the sea.
Bays are found between two headlands and often have a
beach in them…

Page 4

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· Characteristics
The temporary deposition of sand and shingle along the
Pebble beaches may have berms which are small ridges of
pebbles. The ridges usually show high, low and storm tides.
· Formation
Wherever waves lose power they deposit material that they
In bays beaches are formed…

Page 5

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· They therefore expand and take up more room.
· This causes sea levels to rise.
The South East is sinking into the sea.
· During the ice age there was lots of ice in the north of the UK.
· This was very heavy and so weighed the North…

Page 6

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· Rocks with more joints and bedding planes are more susceptible to
erosion as the waves can exploit these weaknesses.
· Hardness of rock is also a factor: hard rocks, such as granite, are less
susceptible to erosion than a softer rock such as boulder clay, which
is loosely bound.…

Page 7

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Provides useful structures for people interested in fishing.
Rock armour
· Costs
Expensive to transport because the stone is often from
abroad or somewhere else along the coast.
Look out of place as the stone often doesn't fit in with the
local geology.
Can be obtrusive.
· Benefits
Relatively cheap…

Page 8

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Rich diversity of wildlife.
The resulting habitat and species that inhabit it
Cord grass
· Pioneer species
· Can grow in salt water
· Its roots help to trap mud and are long to stop it being swept away
by the sea.
· Helps improve soil fertility


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