AQA GCSE geography Unit 2A Changing Urban Environments

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  • Created on: 11-06-13 12:56
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Urbanisation
10 June 2013
14:52
Urbanisation is happening fastest in poorer countries Why do people in countries move from rural areas to cities?
Urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas. There's often a shortage of services ( e.g. education, access to
Its happening in countries all over the world- more than 50% of the worlds population currently live in urban water and power) in rural areas. Also people from rural areas
areas(3.4 billion people) and this is increasing every day. sometimes believe that the standard of living is better in cities
Urbanisation differs between rich and poor. ( even though this often turns out not be the case)
There are more jobs in urban areas. Industry is attracted to cities
Urbanisation is caused by
Most of the population in richer countries already live in because there's a larger workforce and better infrastructure than in
urban areas. 80% of the UK's population live in urban Rural-urban migration rural areas.
areas Rural- urban migration is the
Not many of the population in poorer countries movement of people from the
countryside to cities. Why do rich people move from rural areas to cities?
currently live in urban areas. 25% of the population of Most urbanisation in rich countries occurred during the Industrial
Bangladesh live in urban areas. The reasons why people move are
different in poorer and richer and Agricultural revolutions ( 18th and 19th century)- machinery
Most urbanisation that's happening in the world today began to replace farm labour in rural areas and jobs were created
is going on in poorer countries and its happening at a countries.
in new factories in urban areas. People moved from farms to towns
fast pace. for work.
It is normally young people that
move to cities to find work. These In the late 20th century people left run down inner city areas and
people have children in the cities moved to the country. But people are now being encouraged back
which increases the proportion of by the redevelopment of these areas.
the population living in urban Facilities may be more practical or better e.g. there are more
areas. Also better healthcare in schools, hospitals etc.
urban areas means people live
longer, again increasing the
proportion of people in urban
areas.
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Parts of the city
11 June 2013
10:59
A City can be split into four main parts.
Cities are usually made up of four parts-each part has a different land use e.g. housing or
industrial.
CBD:
This is the central business district. Its usually found right in the
centre of the city. It's the commercial centre of the city with shops
and offices and its where transport routes meet. It has very high
land values as there's a lot of competition for space.…read more

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More Urban Issues
11 June 2013
11:39
Increased car use has an impact on urban environments
There are more and more cars on the roads of cities in richer countries. This causes a variety of problems, which can
discourage people from visiting and shopping in the city:
More air pollution, which damages health
More road accidents
Air pollution also damages buildings
More traffic jams and congestion
There are a variety of solutions to help reduce traffics and its impact.
Improving public transport.…read more

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Squatter Settlements
11 June 2013
12:25
Squatter settlements are common in cities in Poorer Countries.
Squatter settlements are settlements that are built illegally in and around the city by people who can't afford proper
housing
The Positives of Dharavi Slum
Squatter settlements are a problem in many growing cities in poorer countries e.g. Dharavi, There are positives, informal shopping areas exist where it is
Mumbai ( India) possible to buy anything you might need. There are also
mosques catering for people's religious needs.…read more

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Squatter Settlements Rio De Janeiro
11 June 2013
12:54
Social Improvements:
The Favela- Barrio Project helps people in Rio De Janeiro's favelas Day-care centres and after school schemes to look
Rio de Janerio is in the south east of Brazil.…read more

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Urbanisation - Environmental issues
11 June 2013
13:20
Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation affect the Environment. Air and water pollution have many effects
Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation( where the economy of the country changes from being based on Air Pollution:
agriculture to manufacturing) can cause a number of environmental problems Air pollution can lead to acid rain which damages buildings and
vegetation
Waste disposal problems- people in cities create a lot of waste.…read more

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Sustainable Cities
11 June 2013
13:31
Urban areas need to become more sustainable, including local people can make the schemes
succeed.
Sustainable development is development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs
of future generations.
Schemes to reduce waste and safety dispose of it:
More recycling means fewer resources are used e.g. metal cans can be melted down and used to make more
cans. Less waste is produced, which reduces the amount that goes to landfill.…read more

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Curitiba
11 June 2013
13:45
Curitiba is aiming to be a sustainable city.
Curitiba is a city in southern Brazil with a population of 1.8 million people
The overall aims of its planners are to improve the environment, reduce pollution and waste and
improve the quality of life for residents.
The city has a budge of $600 million to spend every year
Reducing car use:
There is a good bus system, used by more than 1.4 million passengers per day.…read more

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