aqa gcse geography notes- changing urban environments

Detailed notes for Changing Urban Environments

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Urbanisation
Urban morphology in the UK and developing world cities
Urban areas in the UK usually have specific land uses for specific areas, which can be referred
to as urban zones.
Many British cities have 3 zones- a CBD in the centre, an inner city around the CBD and on the
outside suburbs fill the surrounding built up area. Shops and offices are usually concentrated
in the CBD.
When the built up areas of the city touch the countryside and pushes urban land use into it,
we refer to this area as the Rural-Urban fringe.
CBD
Most often, the CBD is located in the centre of the urban area, around historic sites like
cathedrals or castles. From a distance, the CBD is clearly visible by the large amount of
skyscrapers and other large buildings found in it.
The CBD of a city will have the largest amount of offices and shops, the largest variety of
goods on sale, the largest land values, rents and rates (which explains the compressed
buildings), the main place of work and therefore congestion and is the place where most
roads meet and railway stations are.
Very few people (in comparison to other zones) live here.
Inner city
This is located in between the CBD and the suburbs and although it has more houses and
people living in it than the CBD, is usually an industrial area suffering from urban decay.
It has mixed land use such as old terraced houses with many floors often let out as flats, old
and occasionally abandoned factories and warehouses, areas of derelict land located near
railways, canals and unused docks, high rise flats (built in the 1960s) and small areas of
modern developments such as the London docklands, Albert dock in Liverpool and Salford
Quays in Manchester.
The primary difference between the CBD and the suburbs is the inner city's run down
appearance.
Suburbs
The suburbs, which usually cover the largest area of most cities, are part of the urban area
which has grown out from the centre and into old countryside.
This outer zone is primarily residential: along main roads are semi-detached houses and small
shopping parades, behind main roads are modern developments consisting of semi and
detached houses, private estates sometimes bought by residents, houses here (usually)
have garages and gardens with space between them.
More recent (and more expensive) houses are located on the outer suburbs where the
housing density is lower.
Almost all suitable building land will have been used.

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Developing world cities
The layout in a developing city is much more different and irregular, as land uses are less-well
split apart.
This is due to the fact that any planning controls are much less regulated and also to
explosive population growth which means that newcomers use any available land.
People who make homes on land not owned by them are called squatters, whose
settlements are slum housing and quickly grow into shantytowns.…read more

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In the UK, the agricultural revolution of the 18th century started to provide surplus food. This
allowed people to move to towns and buy the surplus food from farmers.
People moved for jobs in new industries e.g. mines, shipyards and basic factories (textiles +
steel) starting the industrial revolution.
The owners of mines, shipyards and factories built cheap, densely packed, terraced houses
for the workers.
Push/pull factors- push factors are a negative feeling that something gives you e.g.…read more

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Nobody else wants the land that the squatters are on e.g. swamp of marshland which means
that people can't build on it and it has disease, rubbish dumps, steep slopes and polluted
industrial land.
Aided self-help is becoming more popular. This is because of tourism (shanty town tours),
political revolutions (sensible to help), industry (puts off companies from other countries),
good for the country (development).
The informal sector is known as the black market.…read more

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The housing problem is somewhat different from the normal problems as there are no
shantytowns so brick houses are illegally built on land by the Nile which has been set aside
for food.
These houses cover 80% of Greater Cairo with around 2-3 million people living in the cities of
the dead around old tombs and cemeteries of Old Cairo and even in huts on rooftops.
Each person in Cairo has around 2m^2 and the population density is around 33,000 people
per km^2.…read more

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Economic factors (no money so cheap housing e.g. Brixton)
Dress (everyone the same or you feel stupid e.g. Burkhas +people who wear really different
clothes could be abused)
Family
Food
Political reasons (governments can force it e.g. Nazi ghettoes or governments can affect the
number of migrants and can stop certain groups)
Fear (people can feel safer and be safer from discrimination, persecution and racism),
wherever there is poverty there is persecution.…read more

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Lots of space
You don't have to clear anything
No strict building regulations
Disadvantages of Greenfield sites
Less accessible as not normally in the city
Protests about tarmacking the countryside.
Greenbelt is land which the government tries to protect with heavy planning regulations.
Greenbelt land is usually on an area around the edge of the city to stop it expanding.
NIMBYs= someone who want the advantages of something but not the costs.…read more

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Mayor Jame Lerner believes in small cheap changes believed in by the people.
It uses a recycling and garbage collection separated into organic waste and inorganic waste.
UN gave the city highest recycling award for its scheme.
Enough waste is collected for 7 skyscrapers each day.
The city has a waste to recycling plant- it is even built from recycled things.
Curitiba recycles almost 2/3 of its waste. As a result, many people are employed in the
waste industry.…read more

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