a full sheet of case studies for the topics we learnt at school.

These are

1. The Restless Earth (Tectonics)

5. Water on the Land (Rivers)

6. Ice on the Land (Glaciers)

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Becky's Case Studies Sheets ­ Geography Physical Paper A
Case Study: An area of Fold Mountains (Topic 1:2)
The Alps Mountain Range.
Where an area of sea separates two plates, sediments settle on the sea floor in depressions called geosynclines. These sediments
gradually become compressed into sedimentary rock. When the two plates move towards each other again, the layers of
sedimentary rock on the sea floor become crumpled and folded. Eventually the sedimentary rock appears above sea level as a
range of fold mountains.
Uses of Fold Mountains
1. Farming- Fold mountain areas use a process called transhumance, which is the seasonal movement of animals. For example in the
Alps, animals graze in the colder winter months on the valley floor, whereas in the warmer summer months they are allowed to
graze further upland. Fold Mountain ranges are perfect for farming because of their steep sides.
2. Tourism- Tourism is another big use of fold mountains. Because of their climate and terrain, they are perfect for ski resorts. Fold
Mountain ranges such as the Alps bring a lot of tourists to them for skiing, hotels, restaurants. This provides jobs and boosts the
income of local businesses.
3. HEP- Fold Mountain ranges often rely on Hydro-Electric Power to generate their power. The valleys are perfect because of their
steep sides, fast flowing frequent water supply. The water is stored in a reservoir where it is kept until needed then channelled
through a turbine, generating electricity.
Problems with living in Fold Mountain Areas
1. The areas are often too steep for main infrastructure such as roads, and large buildings.
2. The climate is very cold and wet, which causes problems for industry and farming.
3. Avalanches are a constant threat.
Case Study: A Volcanic Eruption (Topic 1:4)
Mount St. Helens, Cascade Range, Washington State, USA.
March 1980.
The Juan de Fuca Plate is being subducted under the North American by processes explained by plate
tectonics theory. As the descending Juan de Fuca plate is subjected to increasing pressure it becomes
hotter and begins to partially melt. The molten rock called magma begins to rise towards the surface.
When it reaches the surface it erupts and a volcano is formed.

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Economic Environmental Social
200 houses destroyed Over 4km3 of material emitted. 57 people killed
A quarter of this is fresh lava.
27 bridges destroyed The removal of the north side of 1,500 elk killed
the mountain (13% of the cone's
volume) reduces the mountains
height be 400m.
15 miles of railway and 185 miles of Huge crater left in side of 5,000 deer killed
highway blocked mountain
Air travel temporarily disrupted. Crops such as wheat and alfalfa Visibility closes additional roads.
destroyed.…read more

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Case Study: A Supervolcano (Topic 1:5)
What is a Supervolcano?
A supervolcano is a volcano that emits at least 1000km3 of material. They have large depressions called
How are Supervolcanoes formed?
Rising magma cannot escape, and a large bulge appears on the surface. Cracks appear in
the surface and gas and ash erupt from the magma chamber. The magma chamber
collapses forming a depression called a caldera.…read more

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Environmental Impacts
Social Impacts
Immediate Responses
Important Route 5 highway repaired 1 day after the Emergency supplies distributed. This includes food water
earthquake. Thick metal plates used. and medicine.
International aid is slow to arrive.
Power restored to 90% of homes in 10 days. Receives a lot of help from America. The diving teams
and engineers help to clear debris.…read more

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President analyzes situation. Asks for specific help UN sent troops and were able to feed 2 million people.
including field hospitals, satellite phones and floating
USA sent helicopters, 10,000 troops, search and rescue
teams and $100 million in aid.
235,000 Haitians relocated.
Longer Term Responses
Prediction, Protection and Preparation
(shannon write here )
Case Study: A Tsunami (Topic 1:8)
The tsunami which I have chosen to study is the Indian Ocean Tsunami of Boxing Day 2004.…read more

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Immediate Long term
Fresh water, water purification tablets, food, and shelter £372 million donated by the British Public in a year.
Medical teams and forensic scientists arrive and begin £40 million spent on rebuilding projects in Indonesia
search and rescue. and Sri Lanka.
UK government promises £75 million, but public donations Plans to build 200,000 houses commence.
of £100 million follow.
Warning system set up in 2006.…read more

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Social Impacts
600 dead Power cuts cause stress and shock.
30 million homeless PC Barker killed rescuing people from a bridge.
100,000 suffer from diarrhoea. Communication cut between towns.
Wool tangled in everything due to flooded knitting shop.
Immediate Responses
Food supplies, medicines, clothes and blankets Fire-fighters and RAF rescue 2000 people.
Local communities rebuild homes. Army build new bridge to speed up exits.…read more

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Advantages Disadvantages
Prevents Yangtze River from flooding. 10 year payback time ($30,000,000,000)
Generates the equivalent of 18 nuclear power stations. Took 12 years and 60,000 workers to build.
Largest HEP supplier in the world. Workers receive minimum wage and had dangerous
unclean working conditions.
Contains 32 turbines. 100 workers died on the job.
Case Study: Managing Water Supply (Topic 5:6)
Kielder Water is situated in Northumberland, North West of Newcastle. It is a water management
scheme.…read more

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Snowboarding Rafting/Canyoning
Cable Cars Ice Caves
Snowshoe Trails Mountain Biking
Cog Railways Hiking (350km of marked trails in Chamonix)
Cross Country Skiing Outdoor Cafes & Music
Paragliding Tree Trekking
Impacts that Chamonix has as a resort.
Social Economic Environmental
Conflicts arise between different Tourists boost local economy. Noise from machinery scares
groups of people such as tourists, animals.
residents, and environmentalists.
Residents less likely to migrate in Provides jobs and a demand for Deforestation in order to build
seek of education. service. resorts.…read more

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Helping Local Sectors and Businesses
Reducing the impact of SKIing
Case Study: Fragile Environments (Topic 6:6)
Abondance, France
15 years of unreliable snowfall cause the ski lifts to be closed.
This puts pressure on higher up fragile environments.
o Infrastructure construction impacts ecosystems.
o Deforestation increases avalanche risk.
o Overuse of slopes increases avalanche risk.
o Pollution reduces tourist attraction
Case Study: Avalanches (Topic 6:7)
o Galtür is a small village about 1600m high up.…read more


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