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Page 1

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Coasts
What is a constructive wave? (1)
These are long waves with little energy, better at depositing material on the beach. Swash is greater
than backwash.

What is a destructive wave? (1)
Shorter waves with lots of energy, drags sediment down the beach. Stronger backwash than swash.

Explain the formation…

Page 2

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Hydraulic action and abrasion erode the headlands back. Often in areas of dense jointing lies a fault
which is vulnerable to erosion from the waves. Wave cut notch + platforms are often created
sometimes forming stacks and stumps.

With the aid of a diagram, explain what happens in long shore…

Page 3

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Rivers
Explain how levees are formed (6)
As river floods the velocity is reduced so sediment is deposited. Larger heavier sediment are
deposited closer to the channel, great thickness of alluvium can build up. Natural embankments build
up. Repeated flooding is needed to make them form properly and the river…

Page 4

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Using examples of earthquakes, explain why some cause more deaths than others (6)
LEDCS/MEDCS ­ recovery, prediction, buildings, medical, emergency services.
Label a volcano (3)
Crater, vent, subduction zone, magma, lava.
Using one or more examples of a volcanic eruption, describe the effects on the physical
environment. (4)
Landslides =…

Page 5

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Furthermore, there is the problem of visual pollution, as de-industrialized areas often scar the
landscape, with abandoned, derelict factories an eyesore to anyone inhabiting or visiting the area.
Thus, in order to mitigate such problems and improve the economy of such areas, government help in
the form of incentives, or…

Page 6

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Transport Routes: It is important to take into consideration what transport routes there are in the
vicinity of the industry's location. Dual carriageways and motorways are often seen as important to
allow cheap, efficient transport of the finish product to its market, as well as ensuring a ready supply
of…

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What is the link between secondary and tertiary industry? (2)
Secondary industries involve manufacturing finished products, which are then supplied to tertiary
industries, who sell such products on, as their duty is to provide a service to the general public and
other industries.

Give two reasons for the industrial changes…

Page 8

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This is because manufacturing industries have declined due to competition from NICs and LEDCs,
where it is now cheaper for production to take place. Raw materials in MEDCs have become
uneconomic to extract or have simply been economically exhausted. Thus, tertiary and quaternary
industries, which have been established over a…

Page 9

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People move from one country to another. Using examples, describe the advantages to the two
countries involved. (6)
Recipient ­ broadens the culture with languages etc. More labour (eg when England wanted people
to come in from India etc) Brings money to the country, spending money etc. New skills and…

Page 10

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Death Rates ­ technology was improved and so was medical care.

Describe how government of MEDCs try to cope with changes in population structure. (6)
Talk about the 2 policies discussed before?

Describe voluntary migration (2)
This is when somebody or family choose to leave a country/enter a country by…

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vvk12345

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could u plz post changing urban environment questions???

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