AQA GCSE Geography A the restless earth revision notes

A set of revision notes for the forthcoming exam.

Hope they are useful! 

Going to upload similar revision pages for tourism, rocks resources and scenery, population, changing urban environments and the coastal zone.

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Page 1

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Why is the earth's crust unstable?
The structure of the earth

Page 2

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Types of plate margin
Destructive plate margin
Convection currents in the mantle cause plates to move together. If one plate is made from oceanic
crust and the other from continental crust, the denser oceanic curst sinks under the lighter continental
crust in a process known as subduction. Great pressure is…

Page 3

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Constructive plate margin
When plates move apart, a constructive plate
boundary results. This usually happens under the
ocean. As the plates pull away from each other,
cracks and fractures form between the plates
where there is no solid crust. Magma forces its
way up into the cracks and makes it…

Page 4

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Both fold mountains are ocean trenches result from the plates moving together. If both landforms
occur in the same area, they are found in association with subduction. In fold mountains occur by
themselves they are in areas where collision is taking place. Either way, the sequence relation to the

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Case study: The Alps
The Alps are a mountain range in Europe. They were formed about 35 million years ago by the
African plate pushing north against the Eurasian plate.

Most farms are located on the sunny south facing slopes. The traditional farming method was using a
system called…

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RELIEF: mainly high and steep, rock outcrops are frequent and many mountain valleys are
rocky and narrow. This means there is little flat land for settlements or farming.
CLIMATE: increasing height brings colder, windier, wetter weather. The growing season is
short and cannot take place at high levels.
SOILS: mountain…

Page 7

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Roads and bridges became unusable After effects killed 700 people.
hindering any help.
6 people died directly.

Immediate responses

Long term


Monitoring and predicting volcanoes
Tilt meters can measure small changes in the landscape.
Changes in temperature can be detected on satellite images.
Robots called `spiders' measure changes in…

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Time lapse cameras allows geologists to look at craters and make safe observations

What is a supervolcano?
A supervolcano is a mega colossal volcano that erupts at least 1,000km³ of material.

Characteristics of a supervolcano

Case Study: Yellowstone
The likely effects of an eruption

INITIAL EFFECTS: the clearing of any…

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Worldwide travel would cease and day would be turned to night. It would alter the climate
and make everywhere much colder. The ash would stay in the atmosphere for up to 6 years
and worldwide trade would be affected too.

What are earthquakes and where do they
Characteristics of…

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How do the effects of earthquakes differ in
countries at different stages of development?
KOBE (Japan) EARTHQUAKE ­ January 7th 1995, 5.46am ­ 7.2 Richter scale ­ 20 seconds long MEDC
SIHUAN (China) EARTHQUAKE ­ May 12th 2008, 2.28pm ­ 7.9 Richter scale ­ 2 minutes long LEDC





thank you



This is such a helpful resource. Thank you! :)



thanks so much



Thank you, great resource.

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