AQA Depression Revision Guide

This was created using my teachers booklet and the AQA complete textbook. Please not that despite attempting to create an accurate revision guide, this does not include everything you need in your exam. And other materials will need to be used alongside this.

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A2 Psychology Revision

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Key Words
Interrater Reliability Two (or more) interdependent assessors give similar scores.
Testretest Reliability A test is likely to produce the same results on two (or more) separate
Content Validity Items in a test are representative of that which is being measured.
Concurrent Validity Measures whether a test corresponds with already existing ways of
assessing the characteristic in question.
Construct Validity The degree to which a test measures an internal construct or variable.…read more

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Diagnosis and Classification Of Depression
Depression is classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as a
mood disorder. Most depressed individuals will suffer from only one type of depression (unipolar),
whereas others may experience stats of mania that alternate with depression (bipolar).
Comer (2001) claimed depression is "a low, sad state marked by significant levels of sadness, lack
of energy, low selfworth, guilt or related symptoms".…read more

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Synoptic Observerbias.
What Is The BDI? The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a selfreport questionnaire designed to
measure the severity of symptoms in individuals with depression. Each question assesses a specific
symptom (items 114 measure psychological symptoms, while items 1521 measure physical
symptoms). Every item is accompanied by four alternative responses, graded for severity from 03.
How Do You Test Severity? ­ The sum of the BDI items indicates the severity of depression.…read more

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Biological Explanations Of Depression
Family Studies ­ Having a firstdegree relative (parent of sibling) with depression appears to be a
risk factor for depression. Family studies select people that already have depression (probands), and
examine whether their family members have or may have depression. Gershon (1990) carried out a
metaanalysis of ten family studies and found clinical depression in firstdegree relatives ranged from
7% to 30% (which is higher than the general population).…read more

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By using already depressed patients and
adopted individuals).…read more

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Serotonin ­ Research has found that there is a link between low serotonin levels and depression.
Prozac and other antidepressant drugs (which block serotonin) have confirmed this link.
Delagdo et al (1990) gave depressed patients a diet which lowered tryptophan (a precursor of
serotonin) and found the majority of patients experienced a return of depressive symptoms, which
disappeared when their diet returned to normal.…read more

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Psychological Explanations Of Depression
Mourning and Melancholia ­ According to Freud (1917) when a loved one is lost (through
bereavement or, for children, separation or withdrawal) there is a period of mourning, and then life
returns to normal. For some however this period of mourning does not end, Freud claimed this then
became melancholia (depression).…read more

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­ a characteristic of depression).
Hopelessness ­ Abramson et al (1989) modified the helplessness theory, and explained
depression as a pessimistic expectation of the future. Some people with negative attributional styles
don't become depressed, however the hopeless person believes the worst (pessimistic) and doesn't
believe they have the resources to change.…read more


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