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History Periodic Table
In early 1800s didn't know of protons or electron ­ no atomic numbers
Newlands ­ every 8th element had similar properties
Newlands Octaves
Organised by increasing atomic mass
Work was criticised as:
Groups had elements without similar properties (carbon and titanium)
Mixed up metals and non metals…

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Chlorine is fairly reactive ­ poisonous dense green gas
Bromine ­ dense poisonous red/brown volatile liquid
Iodine ­ dark grey crystalline solid or purple vapour
All molecules are pairs of atoms
Form 1 ions called halides
More reactive halogens can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution

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Imported water contains more hardness than local water
Local water is only temp hardness as all hardness is removed by boiling
Imported contains both temp and perm hardness as still some hardness after boiling
Local and imported water contained the same amount of temp harness.
Both cases, soap need in…

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Ammonia breaks down into nitrogen and hydrogen until reaches equilibrium
TEMP: 450oC
Pressure is set as high as possible to give best % yield
Forward reaction is exothermic, so the yield of ammonia would be greater at a lower
BUT lower temp = lower…

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Don't ionise completely so just a weak acidic solution
(Concentration is how watered down your acid is
Strength is how well it has ionised)
Ethanoic acid can be made by oxidising ethanol
Ethanol + oxygen Ethanoic acid + water
Ethanoic acid can be dissolved in water to make vinegar ­…

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(Mol/dm3 = mol / dm3)
~~Number of moles = mass (g) / RFM
~EXAMPLE 1 ­ if they ask fOR concentration in MOLES per dm3
25cm3 of sodium hydroxide in a flask and the concentration is 0.1mol/dm3
Find from titration that it takes 30cm3 of sulfuric acid to neutralise

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In an exothermic reaction, the energy released in bond formation is greater than
energy used in breaking old bonds
Energy and Fuels
Measure amount of energy released when fuel is burnt by burning the fuel to heat up
Uses a glass or metal container ­ good conductors…

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Bond energies you need are
HH: +436kJ/mol ClCl: +242kJ/mol HCl: +431kJ/mol
1. Breaking 1 mole of HH and 1 mole of ClCl bonds requires 436+242=678kJ
2. Forming 2 moles of HCl bonds releases 2x431=862kJ
3. Overall more energy is released than is used to form the products: 862678=
184kJ/mol released…

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Key for Ionic Reaction column
Red means solid. Black means aqueous
Metal Colour of precipitate Ionic reaction
Calcium, Ca2+ White Ca2+ + 2OH Ca(OH)2
Copper(II), Cu2+ Blue Cu2+ + 2OH Cu(OH)2
Iron(II), Fe2+ Green Fe2+ + 2OH Fe(OH)2
Iron(III), Fe3+ Brown Ca3+ + 3OH Ca(OH)3
Aluminium, Al White at…


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