AQA Chemistry Unit 3 (C3) - The Periodic Table and Its Development, Reactivity Groups, Acids & Alkalis

Notes on the early periodic table, the modern periodic table, alkali metals, transition metals, halogens, development of acid & alkali theories and acid strength.

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Triple Chemistry
The Periodic Table and Its Development
The Early Periodic Table
One of the first attempts at making a proper table of elements was by Manchester physicist
John Dalton, who arranged the elements in order of mass by testing their reactions. A man
called John Newland then expanded on…

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react (less attraction from the positive nucleus). All of the alkali metals are extremely
reactive, too, and have to be stored in oil otherwise they will react with oxygen in the air.

Additionally, all alkali metals have a low density. Lithium (Li), potassium (K) and sodium (Na)
have such a…

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more than one ion. Additionally, these ions form different coloured compounds.
Because of the different colours present in transition metal ions, lots of metal compounds
are very colourful. This is why gemstones are coloured, among many other metal
compounds.

One final point about transition metals is that they make good…

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bromide or iodide solution; bromine can displace iodine from an iodide solution, and so on.
For example:

Chlorine + Sodium Bromide -> Sodium Chloride + Bromine

Cl2 + 2NaBr -> 2NaCl + Br2

Acids & Alkalis
Development of Theories
There have been a few different theories about acids and alkalis…

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