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The Early Periodic Table

Newlands and Mendeleev attempted to classify the elements by arranging them in order of their atomic
weights. The list can be arranged in a table so that elements with similar properties are columns, known as
groups. The table is called a periodic table…

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alkali metal + oxygen ---------> alkali metal oxide

Lithium Slow lithium + oxygen --> lithium oxide
Sodium Quick sodium + oxygen --> sodium oxide
potassiu Very Quick potassium + oxygen --> potassium oxide

Alkali metals react vigorously with water. It is an…

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metals due to reactivity. Halogen-metal compounds are salts. Further down the group they become less
reactive, have a higher melting /boiling point and become darker in colour. Properties of the halogens are:
- Poisonous And Smelly
- Non-Metals
- Poor Conductor Of Heat And Electricity
- Brittle And Crumbly When…

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Water of the correct quality is essential for life. For humans, drinking water should have sufficiently low levels
of dissolved salts and microbes. Water of the correct quality is produced by :
- Choosing an appropriate source
- Passing the water through filter beds to remove any solids
- Sterilising…

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Energy released from forming new bonds > energy needed to break existing bonds
In an endothermic reaction:
Energy released from forming new bonds < energy needed to break existing bonds

Catalysts provide a different pathway for a chemical reaction that has a lower activation energy.

Hydrogen can be burned as…

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1. Measure the known volume of the solution of alkali into a conical flask using a pipette (fill the pipette
until the bottom of the meniscus coincides with the mark).
2. Now add an indication solution (universal) into the solution in the flask.
3. Put a solution of the acid…

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RAISED Decreases Increases
LOWERED Increases Decreases

In gaseous reactions, an increase in pressure will favour the reaction that produces the least number of
molecules as shown by the symbol equation for that reaction. These factors, together with reaction rates,
are important when determining the optimum conditions in industrial…

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1) Many esters have pleasant smells- often quite sweet and fruity. They're also volatile. This makes
them ideal for perfumes (the evaporated molecules can be detected by smell receptors in the nose).
2) However, many esters are flammable (or even highly flammable). So their volatility also makes them
potentially dangerous.…


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