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Chemistry 3 Revision

Periodic Table

John Dalton ­ 1808
o Arranged periodic elements in order of mass
o Measured in chemical reactions
o Published in his book ­ A New System of Chemical Philosophy
AlexandreEmile Beguyer de Chancourtois ­ 1862
o Noticed every 8th element was the same
o Showed…

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o Low melting and boiling points
o Many are liquids or gases at room temperature
Noble Gases
o Very unreactive elements
o Very difficult to make them react with other elements
Group 1 ­ Alkali Metals
o Very reactive ­ stored in oil to stop them from reacting with oxygen…

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Covalent bonds
Both have electrons to make stable
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)
o More reactive halogen can displace less reactive halogen
Transition elements
o Giant structure held together by metallic bonds
o Outer electrons of each atom can move freely within the metal delocalised
o Good conductors ­ delocalised electrons can…

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o Strong acid + strong alkali ­ only neutralise if there were the right quantities in the first place
o More acid than alkali ­ all the alkali will be neutralised but the solution will be acidic
o More alkali than acid ­ acid will be neutralised and solution will…

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Solubility
o Many gases are soluble in water
o Many ionic compounds are also soluble in water
o Impossible to dissolve covalent substances in water ­ little attraction between the molecules in the
substance and the molecules in the water
o Solute ­ Solvent ­ Solubility
o Solubility measured in…

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o Contains calcium and magnesium compounds ­ dissolve when streams and rivers run over rocks
containing these compounds
o Sodium stearate (soap) + Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions calcium/magnesium stearate (scum) + Na+ ions (soluble
in water)
o Hard water also leads to scale
Scale is a poor conductor of heat…

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Energy Calculations

Not all fuels produce the same amount of energy when they burn
Some reactions are more exothermic than others
Bomb Calorimeter ­ instrument used to measure how much energy a fuel produces when it burns
o The fuel is burnt under a beaker of water
o Temperature change…

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Flame
Tests
Element Flame colour
Lithium Bright red
Sodium Golden yellow
Potassium Lilac
Calcium Brick red
Barium Green
Analysis

Tests for positive ions
o Sodium hydroxide solution
White precipitates
Aluminium ­ dissolves when more solution is added
Calcium
Magnesium
Coloured precipitates
Copper (II) ­ Light blue
Iron (II) ­ Dirty…

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Produce white precipitate when hydrochloric acid is added followed by barium chloride
solution
White precipitate is barium chloride
Ba2+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) BaSO4 (s)
o Nitrates
Add sodium hydroxide and warm it
If no ammonia is detected ­ aluminium powder is added
Aluminium powder reduces the nitrate ions to…

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Used to measure the concentration of a metal in a liquid sample
o Mass Spectrometer
Used to compare the mass of the different atoms
Also identifies different elements
o Chromatography
Used to separate different compounds in a mixture
Technique is based on how well they dissolve in a solvent
Gasliquid…

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