AQA Chemistry, Unit 1, Introduction to Organic

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Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Nomenclature
Empirical Formula ­ The simplest whole number ration in which the atoms in a compound combine
together
Molecular Formula ­ A formula that tells us the numbers of atoms of each different element that
make up a molecule of a compound
Structural Formula- A way of writing the formula of an organic compound in which bonds are not
shown, but each carbon atom is written separately with the atoms or group of atoms it's attached to
Displayed Formula ­ The formula of a compound drawn out so that each atom and each bond is shown
Homologous Series ­ A set of organic compounds with the same functional group. The compounds
differ in length of their hydrocarbon chains.
Functional Group ­ An atom or group of atoms in an organic molecule which is responsible for the
characteristic reactions of that moleculer
no of carbons simple alkane simple alkene
1 methane methane
2 ethane ethane
3 propane propene
4 butane butane
5 pentane pentene
6 hexane hexene
Alkanes CnH2n+2 Alkenes CnH2n
suffix -ane suffix -ene
Haloalkanes (group 7 as functional group)
prefix Chloro-
Bromo-
Iodo-
Fluoro-
Followed by alkane/alkene
For branched alkanes/ alkenes:
1. Identify the name of the longest carbon chain (for alkenes this must contain the double bond)
2. Identify any branches off this (di=2. Tri=3, tetra=4, from same branch)
3. Work out the position of the branch (number from closest end)
List branches alphabetically
Isomerism

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Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Structural Isomerism ­ Compounds with the same molecular formula, but different structural formula
Chain Isomers
When there are more than 3 carbon atoms in a chain, branching is possible
Changes chain length
Position Isomers
When the functional group is in a different position along the chain.…read more

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