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Unit 1 ­ Atomic Structure

Fundamental Particles ­ Protons, Electrons and Neutrons

Isotopes- atoms of the same element that contain a different number of neutrons.

Different isotopes of the same element react identically, as they have the same number of protons
and neutrons, but different mass numbers due to different…

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Unit 1 ­ Atomic Structure

Na(g) e- + Na+(g)
The second ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the second electron (not both
First: Na(g) e- +Na+(g)
Second Na+(g) e- +Na2+(g)

Factors affecting ionisation energy
Atomic radius
The further the outer electron from the nucleus, the less energy…

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Unit 1 ­ Atomic Structure

1 1s 2

2 2s2p 8

3 3s3p3d 18

4 4s4p4d4f 32

Electrons fill orbitals from the lowest energy upwards.


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