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C2 Notes
1 ­ Structures and Bonding

Number of electrons = Number of protons.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number or
proton number (e.g. the atomic number of carbon is 6 and it has 6 electrons).
The lowest energy…

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Galvanising steel is when you dip iron (steel) in zinc to prevent it from rusting.

2 ­ Structures and Properties.

Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points because the attractive forces
between the oppositely charged ions in the lattice are very strong, and there are lots

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Isotopes ­ atoms of the same element which have a different number of neutrons.
Sometimes extra neutrons make the nucleus unstable, so that it is radioactive. Not
all isotopes are radioactive. They just have a different mass.
Different isotopes of the same element have different physical properties. E.g.…

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Reacting masses:-
Write the equation Calcium + Oxygen calcium
Balance it 2Ca + O 2CaO
Work out the Ar + Mr 80 grams + 32 grams 112
Work out the missing mass 112 = 80 x = 21.4 grams of
30 x
Mass number of…

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Exothermic reactions ­ They transfer energy from the reacting materials into the
surroundings. This causes an increase in temperature. E.g. respiration.
Endothermic reactions ­ They transfer energy from the surroundings into the
reacting materials. This causes a decrease in temperature. E.g. photosynthesis.
In a reversible reaction, one reaction…

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Ionic substances can be electrolysed when they are in molten or in solution, so
that the ions can move around freely.
OILRIG ­ Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain.
Reduction and oxidation rake place at the same time so it is called a redox
When electrolysis happens…

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