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C2 Notes
1 ­ Structures and Bonding

Number of electrons = Number of protons.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number or
proton number (e.g. the atomic number of carbon is 6 and it has 6 electrons).
The lowest energy…

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Galvanising steel is when you dip iron (steel) in zinc to prevent it from rusting.

2 ­ Structures and Properties.

Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points because the attractive forces
between the oppositely charged ions in the lattice are very strong, and there are lots
of…

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Isotopes ­ atoms of the same element which have a different number of neutrons.
Sometimes extra neutrons make the nucleus unstable, so that it is radioactive. Not
all isotopes are radioactive. They just have a different mass.
Different isotopes of the same element have different physical properties. E.g.…

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Reacting masses:-
Write the equation Calcium + Oxygen calcium
oxide.
Balance it 2Ca + O 2CaO
Work out the Ar + Mr 80 grams + 32 grams 112
grams
Work out the missing mass 112 = 80 x = 21.4 grams of
calcium
30 x
Mass number of…

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Exothermic reactions ­ They transfer energy from the reacting materials into the
surroundings. This causes an increase in temperature. E.g. respiration.
Endothermic reactions ­ They transfer energy from the surroundings into the
reacting materials. This causes a decrease in temperature. E.g. photosynthesis.
In a reversible reaction, one reaction…

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Ionic substances can be electrolysed when they are in molten or in solution, so
that the ions can move around freely.
OILRIG ­ Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain.
Reduction and oxidation rake place at the same time so it is called a redox
reaction.
When electrolysis happens…

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