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C2: Chemistry
C2 1.1: Chemical Bonding.

Elements react together to form compounds by gaining or losing electrons, or by sharing electrons.
The elements in Group 1 react with the elements in Group 7. As they react, atoms of Group 1 elements can
each lose one electron to gain the stable…

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C2 2.3: Giant Covalent Structures.

Some covalently bonded substances have giant structures. These substances have high melting points
and boiling points.
Graphite contains giant layers of covalently bonded carbon atoms. However, there are no covalent
bonds between the layers. This means they can slide overreach other making graphite soft and…

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The relative atomic masses of the elements in a compound and its formula can be used to work out its
percentage composition.
We can calculate empirical formulae given the masses or percentage composition of elements present.

C2 3.4: Equations and Calculations.

Balanced symbol equations tell us the number of moles…

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The rate of a chemical reaction increases if the surface area of any solid reactants is increased. This
increases the frequency of collisions between reacting particles.

C2 4.3: The Effect of Temperature.

Reactions happen more quickly, as the temperature increases.
Increasing the temperature increases the rate of reaction, because particles…

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Endothermic changes can be used in instant cold packs for sports injuries.

C2 5.1: Acids and Alkalis.

Acids are substances which produce H+ ions when we add them to water.
Bases are substances that neutralise acids.
An alkali is a soluble hydroxide. Alkalis produce OH- ions when we add them…

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Hydrogen is used to make, margarine.
Sodium hydroxide is used to make, bleach, paper and soap.

C2 5.8: Electroplating.

We can electroplate objects to improve their appearance, protect their surface, and to use smaller
amounts of precious metals.
The object to be electroplated is made the negative electrode in an…


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