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Chemistry 2 ­ Structures and Bonding
· Need to know:
Charges of protons, neutrons and electrons
Basic structure of an atom:
The make up of the nucleus
The make up of the outer shells and how many
electrons they can hold
Ionic Bonding
Covalent Bonding
Bonding in Metals…read more

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Atomic Structure
Type of Sub-Atomic Particle Relative Charge
Proton +1
Neutron 0
Electron -1
P rotons are P ositive X
N eutrons are N eutral X
Electrons must be Negative
Atomic Number = Total number of protons in the nucleus
Finding out the number of Neutrons
19 Atomic Mass ­ Atomic Number = Number Neutrons
P ­ 19
39 K 39 ­ 19 = 20
E ­ 19
N ­ 20…read more

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Electronic Structure
· Electrons orbit around the Nucleus of an atom
on shells/energy levels
· The first shell can hold 2 electrons, and the
rest of the shells can hold 8 electrons
The `Atomic Number' for Carbon is 6, therefore it has 6
XX electrons
XX The first 2 electrons fill up the first shell and the remaining
X 4 electrons are start to fill up the second shell
C X As the outer shell is not full the carbon atom is unstable
and reactive
The written version of the diagram looks like:
2, 4 (as there is two electrons on the first shell and 4
on the next shell)…read more

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Chemical Bonding
· Atoms bond to gain a full outer shell
· Atoms become charged when they gain or
loose electron/s
· A full outer shell = stable (group 8noble gases)
· An incomplete outer shell = unstable (group 1-
· Gaining an electron (-)
· Loosing an electron (+)…read more

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