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Business Studies


AS Level


People in Business


Revision Notes














Bethany Archer Page 1 12/12/2011

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PRODUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE

LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY:
LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY CAN BE INCREASED BY:
LABOUR TURNOVER:
EXTERNAL CAUSES OF HIGH LABOUR TURNOVER:
CONSEQUENCES OF HIGH LABOUR TURNOVER
BENEFITS OF HIGH LABOUR TURNOVER
HOW TO REDUCE HIGH LABOUR TURNOVER:
EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
ABSENTEEISM
CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM (THE UNAVOIDABLE):
CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM…

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KEY TERMS(THAT HAVEN'T ALREADY BEEN MENTIONED)






Bethany Archer Page 3 12/12/2011

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Productivity and Performance


Productivity is a measurement of a firm's efficiency by measuring outputs in relation to inputs.

The firm's efficiency can be increased by producing more with the same amount of inputs or by producing
the same amount but with fewer inputs.


Labour Productivity:
A measure of the output…

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External Causes of high labour turnover:
More local vacancies arising
Better transport links enabling more opportunity further out


Consequences of high labour turnover
Cost of recruitment of replacements
Training costs
New employees will take time settling in
Loss of productivity as new workers adjust


Benefits of high labour turnover
New…

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Ways to reduce absenteeism:
Offer an attendance bonus
Improve relations
Improve working conditions
Create more interesting and challenging jobs
Offer more flexible working practices.






Organisational Structure


A formal and systematic way the management of a business is organised

Organisations often have department structure. This could be based upon products, regions…

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Delegation

This is the passing of authority down the hierarchy of a business


Benefits of delegation:
Can motivate staff
Makes it easier in the future to identify staff with the qualities needed for promotion
Allows the boss the opportunity to spend time planning and thinking, rather than doing.







Recruitment and…

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Examples of the advertisements used:
Newsletter
Intranet
Word of mouth
Notice board
At meetings


Advantages of internal recruitment:
Abilities of candidates is already known
Motivating for workforce (prospect of promotion)
Quicker
Shorter induction period required
Reduces risk of employing the wrong person and is less expensive
Individual already knows the…

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These are called selection techniques ­ the processes used by an organisation to ensure the choose
the most appropriate candidate possible

Aptitude tests are a measurement of the level of ability of a candidate

Psychometric testing is an examination of personality and attitudes

Assessment centres/ group assessment is a more…

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Motivation

Motivation is the will to work. This comes from the enjoyment of the work itself and/or from the desire to
achieve certain goals e.g. earn more money or achieve promotion.
Managers spend considerable time working out how best to motivate their workers and there are a
number of different…

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