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Animal Cells

Nucleus ­ controls the cells activities

Cytoplasm ­ where many chemical reactions take place

Cell membrane ­ controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell

Mitochondria ­ where energy is released during aerobic respiration

Ribosome's ­ where proteins are made (synthesised)

Plant Cells

Nucleus ­…

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Molecules move randomly because for the energy they have.

Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of
lower concentration

The large the difference in concentration the faster the rate of diffusion the faster the rate of

Diffusion of oxygen into…

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Palisade layer ­ palisade cells at top of leaf so they are closer to light, tightly packed together and
full of chloroplasts

Spongy layer ­ cells not tightly packed together have a larger surface area available for gas
exchange and some chloroplasts.

Lower epidermis ­ guard cells open and close…

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It is more accurate than a pyramid of numbers as it represents the mass of the product rather than
the amount.

You can draw pyramids of biomass to scale to give a more accurate picture.

Energy losses

Not all of the food eaten can be digester, so energy is lost…

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The carbon cycle

Photosynthesis removes co2 from the atmosphere.

Green plants as well as animals respire. This returns co2 to the atmosphere.

Animals eat green plants and build the carbon into their bodies.

When plants or animals die (or produce waste) microorganisms release co2 back into the
atmosphere through respiration.…

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Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from food when oxygen is available.

The process takes part mostly in the mitochondria.

The energy released is used to ­

Build larger molecules from smaller ones

Enable muscle contraction in animals

Maintain a constant body temperature in mammals and birds.

Build sugars…

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Isomerases to convert glucose into fructose to reduce amount of fat in sweet foods as less is

Controlling internal conditions (Homeostatis)

The processes in your body that help to maintain constant internal environment are known as

We must remove waste products produced through chemical reactions from the body.…

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The pancreas monitors and controls the level of sugar in our blood.

I f there is too much sugar in our blood the pancreas produces the hormone insulin that results in the
excess sugar being stored in the liver as glycogen.

If insulin is not produced the blood sugar level…

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Each gamete has only one chromosome from the original pair.

All of the other cells are different from each other and the parent cell.

Sexual reproductions results in variation as the sex cells (gametes) from each parent fuse, So half the
genetic information comes from the father and half from…


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